بررسی تاثیر مداخلات کاردرمانی بر عملکرد درکی حرکتی و مهارت های ترسیمی کودکان کم توان ذهنی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1. کارشناسی ارشد کاردرمانی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، دانشجوی دکتری کاردرمانی دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی. تهران، ایران

2 2. مربی، کارشناسی ارشد آموزش بهداشت، کارشناس مسوول کاردرمانی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران. تهران، ایران

3 3. کارشناسی ارشد روان سنجی، مدرسه استثنایی شهرستان قدس. قدس، ایران

4 4. کارشناس کاردرمانی، مدرسه استثنایی شهرستان فیروزآباد. فارس، ایران

5 5. دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد کاردرمانی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران. تهران، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2015.1100003

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
فرایند دست نویسی به هماهنگی پیچیده مهارت های شناختی، ادراکی و حرکتی نیازمند است. با توجه به اینکه کاردرمانگران مدارس با ارجاع روزافزون کودکان کم توان ذهنی برای درمان مشکلات دست نویسی مواجه هستند و نوشتن یکی از امور مهم روزمره این کودکان می باشد، لذا در این پژوهش، تاثیر مداخلات کاردرمانی بر عملکرد درکی حرکتی و مهارت های ترسیمی کودکان کم توان ذهنی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
مواد و روش ها
با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری غیر احتمالی ساده، بر اساس نمونه پایش و استفاده از فرمول حجم نمونه، تعداد 10 کودک برای گروه درمان و 10 کودک برای گروه کنترل در نظر گرفته شد. گروه درمان به مدت 10 هفته، هر هفته 3 جلسه 60 دقیقه ای، تحت آموزش مداخلات کاردرمانی قرار گرفتند. هر دو گروه تحت آموزش معمول کاردرمانی قرار گرفتند. پس از 10 هفته، تمامی آزمودنی ها مجددا مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. تست استاندارد Long-Form Bruininks – Oseretsky Test Of Motor Proficinecy و تست اسلوسن به ترتیب برای ارزیابی عملکرد درکی حرکتی و مهارت های ترسیمی مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. سپس آنالیز های آماری بر روی داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS صورت گرفت.
یافته ها
نتایج آزمون آنالیز واریانس یکطرفه نشان داد که نمرات تست اسلوسن و زیر تست هماهنگی، بین دو گروه تفاوت معناداری نداشت(05/0≤ P). اما نمرات کل تست برونینکز اوزتسکی و زیر تست های حرکات درشت و حرکات ظریف، بین دو گروه معنادار بود (05/0≥ P).
نتیجه گیری
نتایج مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که مداخلات کاردرمانی باعث بهبود عملکرد درکی حرکتی گردیده است اما تاثیری بر مهارت های ترسیمی کودکان کم توان ذهنی نداشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of occupational therapy interventions on perceptual motor function and drawing skills of mentally retarded children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Narges Ghamari 1
  • Shahla Rafeei 2
  • Ramezan Soltani 3
  • Zahra Ghamari 4
  • Farzane Yazdani 5
1 1. MSc of Occupational Therapy in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, phD Student in occupational therapy in University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 2. Master of Health Education, Occupational therapy expert in Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran MSc of Biostatistics. Faculty of Rehabilitation Science. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
3 3. MSc of psychometrics, Ghods Special School, Ghods, Iran
4 4. Occupational therapy, Rezafiroozabadi Special School, Firoozabad, Iran
5 5. MSc student of Occupational Therapy, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: The process of hand writing need to coordinate a cognitive, perceptual and motor skills complexity. Given that occupational therapists in schools increasingly refers mental retardation children for hand writings problems and hand writing is an important activity of daily living for children. Thus in this study were considered that the effect of occupational therapy intervention on perceptual motor function and drawing skills of children with mental retardation.
Materials and Methods: Using non-probability simple for sampling method, based on example of monitoring and sample size, 10 children for treatment group and 10 children for control group were considered. The treatment group during 10 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 60 minutes, occupational therapy intervention was trained. Both groups were trained by usual occupational therapy. After 10 weeks, all subjects were re-evaluated. Long-Form Bruininks - Oseretsky Test and Slowsen’s test used to assess perceptual motor function and drawing skills, respectively. Then the statistical analysis was performed on the data by use of SPSS software.
Result: Analyze of variance univariate test show that the test scores Slowsen  and coordination between the two groups was not significant(P ≥ 0/05), but the total test scores, gross motor and fine motor development Bruininks – Oseretsky Test sub test between the two groups was significant(P ≤ 0/05).
Conclusion: Results of present study show that occupational therapy intervention cause to improve perceptual motor function, but has not effect on drawing skills in mental retarded children

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Occupational therapy intervention
  • Perceptual motor function
  • Drawing skills
  • Mentally retarded children
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