بررسی اثر توانبخشی شناختی بر عملکردهای اجرایی (توجه و حافظه کاری) در کودکان مبتلا به اختلال نقص‌توجه / بیش‌فعالی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 1. کارشناسی ارشد روانشناسی بالینی کودک و نوجوان دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 2. دانشیار علوم اعصاب شناختی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 3. فوق تخصص روانپزشکی کودک.

4 4. کارشناس روانشناسی کودکان استثنایی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی. تهران، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2015.1100031

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
 اختلال نقص توجه/ بیش فعالی با ناکارآمدی عملکردهای اجرایی از جمله حافظه­کاری همراه است. کارکردهای اجرایی می توانند با استفاده از تمرینات توانبخشی شناختی مورد ترمیم قرار گیرند. مطالعه حاضر با هدف نشان دادن تأثیر توانبخشی شناختی حافظه­کاری بر بهبود عملکردهای اجرایی در افراد مبتلا به اختلال نقص­توجه / بیش­فعالی صورت گرفته است. 
مواد و روش­ها
 این پژوهش از نوع شبه آزمایشی است که در آن از طرح پیش-آزمون پس- آزمون با گروه کنترل استفاده شده است. نمونه مورد بررسی در این مطالعه 30 کودک مبتلا به اختلال نقص توجه / بیش فعالی بوده است که به طور تصادفی در گروه آزمایش و کنترل قرار گرفتند. هر گروه شامل 15 کودک بود. دو گروه (آزمایش و کنترل) از نظر سن و هوش کلامی و عملی همسان سازی شده بودند. گروه آزمایش طی ده جلسه 1 ساعته تحت توانبخشی شناختی قرار گرفتند. افراد هر دو گروه کنترل و آزمایش در جلسه اول، پنجم و آخر درمان مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. عملکرد حافظه­کاری با استفاده از تکلیف چند محرک پیشین (ان بک) و عملکرد توجه با استفاده از آزمون واژه-رنگ استروپ ارزیابی شده است. داده­های این پژوهش با آزمون آماریt مستقل،  تحلیل واریانس آمیخته  و به کمک  نرم‌افزار SPSS.20  تجزیه و تحلیل شدند.
یافته ها
 نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که نمره دقت حافظه­کاری گروه درمان در مقایسه با گروه کنترل بعد از گذراندن جلسات توانبخشی بهبود پیدا کرده است و این تفاوت در سطح 005/0 معنادار است. از سوی دیگر در مورد توجه تفاوت معناداری بین دو گروه وجود ندارد.
نتیجه گیری
نتایج حاصل از تحلیل آماری داده­ها نشان می­دهد که با در نظر گرفتن اثر تعاملی گروه کنترل و درمان توانبخشی شناختی موجب تقویت دقت حافظه­کاری شده است و تاثیر معناداری بر روی توجه نداشته است. می­توان این‌گونه نتیجه گرفت که این برنامه درمانی در بهبود حافظه­کاری کودکان مبتلا به اختلال نقص‌توجه / بیش فعالی موثر واقع شده­است ولی بر روی توجه تاثیر معناداری نداشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of cognitive rehabilitation on executive function (working memory and attention) in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Najarzadegan 1
  • Vahid Nejati 2
  • Nasrin Amiri 3
  • Maryam Sharifian 4
1 1. MA in child and adolescent clinical psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 2.Associate Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 3. Child Psychiatrist
4 4. Bachelor of Psychology of Exceptional Children, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Disorders of executive functions and working memory are considered as the components of the Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Executive functions could be remediated by cognitive rehabilitation exercise. The purpose of the current study is to determine the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation on executive function of children with ADHD.
Material & Methods: The present semi-experimental study, designed with pre-test and post-test of control and experimental group. Thirty children with ADHD were requited in the study and allocated into two control and intervention groups each with 15 individuals randomly. The participants were matched in age, verbal and performance IQ. Intervention group received cognitive rehabilitation in 10 sessions. Intervention groups were assessed with N-Back and stroop tests in the first, the fifth and the last session of intervention. Control group assessed with the same tests in the same time. Data were analyzed with T-test and mixed-design variance analysis using SPSS 20.
Results: The result showed that intervention group has higher score in n- back test after receiving cognitive rehabilitation. There was no significant difference in attention between two groups after the intervention.
Conclusion: in order to analyze the data the result representing the increased mean of working memory score in intervention group in compare to control group. Although, there was no significant difference in attention between two groups after the intervention. It can be concluded that cognitive rehabilitation leads to improvement of the working memory function in children with ADHD. ​

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cognitive rehabilitation
  • Executive Function
  • Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
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