بررسی تأثیر تمرینات مداخله ای لیگامان صلیبی قدامی بر بهبود نقص های عصبی عضلانی و کاهش آسیب

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 1. دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه تهران. تهران، ایران

2 2. دانشیار دانشگاه گیلان گروه حرکات اصلاحی و آسیب شناسی ورزشی دانشکده تربیت بدنی دانشگاه گیلان. ایران

3 3. دانشیار دانشگاه تهران گروه حرکات اصلاحی و آسیب شناسی ورزشی دانشکده تربیت بدنی دانشگاه تهران. تهران، ایران

4 4. استادیار دانشگاه گیلان، گروه حرکات اصلاحی و آسیب شناسی ورزشی دانشکده تربیت بدنی دانشگاه گیلان. ایران

10.22037/jrm.2015.1100037

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
شایع­ترین آسیب لیگامانی زانو ، پارگی لیگامان صلیبی قدامی می باشد که علاوه بر هزینه درمانی زیاد موجب از دست دادن مشارکت ورزشی ، ایجاد آسیب های ثانویه و نیز مشکلات روحی و روانی در ورزشکارن می شود. بر همین اساس پیشگیری از این آسیب در اولویت کاری اغلب محققان قرار گرفته و هدف از این تحقیق نیز بررسی تأثیر تمرینات مداخله ای لیگامان صلیبی قدامی بر بهبود نقص های عصبی عضلانی و کاهش آسیب می باشد.
مواد و روش ها
جستجوی مقالات مرتبط در سایت های تخصصی "PubMed" Medline"" و "Science Direct" با محدوده پوشش مقالات در زمینه های مداخله های تمرین " ، " نقص  های عصبی عضلانی " و " آسیب ACL " در دو دهه اخیر (1996 تا 2013) بود.
یافته ها
ارائه برخی از برنامه های مداخله تمرینی SPortsmetrics, PEP) ,KIPP, FIFA+11 ) موجب کاهش معنی دار میزان آسیب ACL  در هر دو گروه زنان و مردان ورزشکار به ویژه در گروه سنی زیر 18 سال  می گردد.
در مورد نیروی فرود نتایج متناقض بود، اما اکثر مطالعات کاهش اندازه حرکت ران و زانو را گزارش کرده اند. افزایش زاویه خم شدن زانو و ران در اکثر مطالعات گزارش شد که میزان تغییرات و  زمان وقوع بهبودی در طی فعالیت ها متفاوت بود. بیشتر مطالعات بهبود کلی راستای اندام تحتانی در صفحه کرونال و در طی فعالیت فرود پرش را گزارش کردند. بهبود قدرت عضلانی اندام تحتانی پس از یک دوره تمرینی برای عضلات همسترینگ، چهار سر و نسبت همسترینگ به چهار سر و نیز شروع زودتر فعالیت همسترینگ و کاهش فعالیت چهارسر گزارش شد.
نتیجه گیری
انتخاب مناسب تمرینات مداخله ای ACL بر اساس سن، رشته ورزشی و ویژگی های فردی با بهبود شاخص های عصبی عضلانی (اصلاح الکوی فعالیت عضلانی همسترینگ و چهارسر) و بهبود بیومکانیک حرکت (فرود نرم تر با افزایش خم شدن زانو و ران و کاهش ولگوس زانو) در اصلاح الگوی فرود و نهایتا کاهش میزان آسیب ACL موثر می باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of ACL Intervention Programs on the Improvement of Neuromuscular Deficiencies and Reducing the Incidence of ACL Injury (A Review Article)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hemen Mohammadi 1
  • Hassan Daneshmandi 2
  • Mohammad Hossein Alizadeh 3
  • Ali Shamsimajlan 4
1 1. Phd Student of Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercises in University of Tehran Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science Iran.
2 2. Associate Professor.in University of guilan Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science.Iran.
3 3. Assistant Professor in University of Tehran Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science. Tehran, Iran
4 4. Associate Professor.in University of guilan Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science. Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: The most common knee ligament injuries is the Anterior Aruciate Ligament tear. In addition to the high cost of treatment, damage causes loss of sports participation, creation of secondary damage and mental problems in athletes. Accordingly, prevention of ACL injuries has been given top priority in most Studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ACL intervention programs on improvement of neuromuscular deficiencies and reducing the incidence of ACL injury.
Materials and Methods: Searching in specific scientific citations PubMed Medline و Science Direct was carried out for relevant articles with the subject coverage of "Intervention Program",   "ACL Injuries", "Neuromuscular Deficiencies" during 1996-2013.
Results: Some intervention programs (such as Sportsmetrics, PEP, KIPP, FIFA +11) resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of ACL injuries in both male and female athletes especially in individuals less than 18 ages. The result of landing force was controversial, but most of the studies have reported the reduction in hip and knee moment. Increased knee and hip flexion angles were reported in most studies, Changes and improvements over time in various activities, was different. Most studies were reported the improvement of the lower extremities in coronal plan during jump landing tasks. Improving lower extremity muscle strength following training for the hamstring, quadriceps, hamstrings ratio to the quadriceps and early onset of hamstring activity and decreased onset of quadriceps were reported.  
Conclusion: Selection of appropriate ACL intervention program according to age, sport, and personal characteristic for improving neuromuscular index (corrected hamstring and quadriceps muscle activation patterns) improvement of the biomechanics of movement (landing softer with increased knee and hip flexion and decreased knee Valgus) improving landing pattern and reduction in ACL injury rates are effective.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Intervention Program
  • ACL Injuries
  • Neuromuscular Deficiencies
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