راهبردهای حفظ شغل در افراد مبتلا به آسیب های شدید روانی : مقاله مروری

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 1. دانشجوی دکترای کاردرمانی، گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

2 2. مرکز تحقیقات مسایل روانی اجتماعی سالمندان، گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران ، ایران

3 3. دکترای پرستاری، گروه آموزشی پرستاری، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

4 4. دکترای علوم اعصاب، گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

5 5. روانپزشک، مرکز توانبخشی طلوع

10.22037/jrm.2014.1100081

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
کار و اشتغال در زندگی بیشتر افراد نقش کلیدی دارند، به طوریکه علاوه بر منافع مالی، شکل دهنده تطابقات اجتماعی بوده و در حفظ سلامتی و رفاه موثرند. اشتغال در افراد با آسیب های روانی نه تنها مانند جمعیت عادی حائز اهمیت می باشد، بلکه نقشی کلیدی را در بهبود این بیماران ایفاء می کند. با این وجود به دست آوردن و  حفظ شغل در این افراد یک چالش محسوب شده و تعداد محدودی از آنان در این روند موفق می شوند. با توجه به اینکه عدم اشتغال طولانی مدت ممکن است موقعیت این بیماران را در زندگی بدتر کرده و منجر به محدودیت های دائمی گردد، این مقاله به بررسی راهبردهای حفظ شغل توسط این افراد می پردازد. هدف این مقاله، مرور منابع به منظور بررسی راهبردهای حفظ شغل در بیماران مبتلا به آسیب های روانی شدید می باشد.
مواد و روش ها
با استفاده از کلمات کلیدی employment،  severe mental illness، sustain، tenure و  coping strategy ، 25 مقاله بدون محدودیت زمانی انتخاب شده و پس از مرور برطبق راهبردهای به کار رفته توسط بیماران دسته بندی شدند.
یافته ها
مرور منابع نشان داد که راهبردهای به کار رفته توسط بیماران به دو دسته راهبردهای ذهنی و راهبردهای عملی تقسیم می گردد. در هر یک از این راهبردها، تمرکز بیمار بر شخص خود ( راهبردهای شخص- محور) و یا بر شغل ( راهبردهای شغل- محور ) بوده است.
نتیجه گیری
بنظر می رسد توانایی مدیریت علائم بیش از سایر راهبردها می تواند موثر و کاربردی که  توصیه می شود به شکل آموزش های منسجم در برنامه های توانبخشی حرفه ایی این بیماران گنجانده شود.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Strategies for Sustaining a Job in Patients with Severe Mental Illness: A Literature Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mitra Khalaf-Beigi 1
  • Mehdi Rassafiani 2
  • Farahnaz Mohammmadi 3
  • Hojat- allah Haghgo 4
  • Hamid Taherkhani 5
1 1. PhD candidate of occupational therapy, Department of Occupational Therapy, The University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 2. Iranian Research Center on Aging, Department of Occupational Therapy, The University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, The University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 4. Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, The University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 5. Psychiatrist, Tolo Rehabilitation Center
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Work is one of the key components in the life, as it brings financial benefits, social adjustment and affects health and well-being. Employment of people with mental illness not only is important as it is for general population, but also has a key role in their treatment.  However, obtaining and maintaining a job for these people is considered as a challenge, and few of them can achieve their goals in this process. The aim of this paper was to review the resources to investigate job retention strategies in patients with severe mental illness.
Materials and Methods: 25 relevant articles were selected and reviewed using key words employment, severe mental illness, sustain, tenure and coping strategy.
Results: Review of the articles showed that the strategies used by patients are divided into two categories: mental and practical strategies. Each of these focused on person (person –based strategy) or job (job –based strategy).
Conclusion: The reviews highlighted that the most effective and practical strategy is “illness management” that is suggested to be added to the vocational rehabilitation programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • employment
  • severe mental illnesses
  • sustain
  • tenure
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