بررسی عوامل موثر در پیشگیری از زمین خوردن و شکستگی استخوانی سالمندان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی دانشکده و دانشجوی دکترای پرستاری دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی

2 استادیار گروه پرستاری دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی

3 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی

4 دانشجوی دکترای مدیریت دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

10.22037/jrm.2012.1100102

چکیده

مقدمه
فرایند سالمندی شامل یکسری تغییرات پیش رونده و غیر قابل برگشت در زندگی است . تغییرات  سالمندی از 40-35 سالگی  شروع شده لیکن سن 60 سال به بالا سالمند محسوب می شود. باتوجه به فرایند پاتوفیزیولوژیک سالمندی یکی از شایعترین و جدی ترین مشکلات سالمندان استئوپروز و شکستگی های استخوان به دنبال زمین خوردن  است. شیوع شکستگی فمور،هماتوم ساب دورا،آسیب و ضربات مغزی به ترتیب مهمترین عوامل بستری سالمندان در بیمارستان ها را تشکیل می دهند. سالمندان تا زمانیکه دچار آسیب یا مشکل نشده باشند،به عوامل خطر توجه نداشته و نمی دانند چگونه باید از آنها پیشگیری کنند. بنابراین بررسی و شناخت اقدامات پیشگیرانه در مورد استئوپروز و زمین خوردن سالمندان ضروری به نظر می رسد. مقاله حاضر یک مقاله مروری است که پس از بررسی حدود 30 مقاله مربوط به 5 سال اخیر در مورد بررسی و شناخت عوامل خطر و پیشگیری زمین خوردن سالمندان تهیه شده است.نتایج حاصل از بررسی مقالات نشان  دادند  علت  زمین خوردن سالمندان پیچیده و چند عاملی است. سلامتی عمومی،ناتوانی عملکردی،سن بالا،هذیان و عفونت از عوامل مهم زمین خوردن سالمندان محسوب می گردد. عوامل خطر زمین خوردگی سالمندان توسط تیم مراقبت بهداشتی سالمند شناسی شناسایی شده و در مرحله بعد با همکاری تیم توانبخشی به طور موفقیت آمیز می تواند از آسیب و صدمه سالمندان پیشگیری نماید. این اقدامات شامل الف) بررسی وشناخت سالمندان در معرض خطر  ب) کاهش یا از بین رفتن  عوامل خطر که می تواند شامل: 1) تمرینات بدنی - فیزیکی 2) مصرف داروها 3) رژیم غذایی مناسب 4) مداخلات چندجانبه باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Review Study on Effective Factors in Prevention of Falling and Osteoporosis Fracture in Elderly People

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roghayeh Esmaieli 1
  • Zhila Abed Saeedi 2
  • Mehrdad Esmaili 3
  • Jalil Kaveh 4
1 PhD Student of Nursing. Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (corresponding author) r_emaieli@yahoo.com
2 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Medical Surgical, Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3 MSc in Information Technology management, Tehran, Iran
4 PhD Student of Management of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim
 The geriatric process consists of stages of progressive and unrevisable changes during the life. This change starts from the age of 35 to 40, but usually a person over 60 years old is considered as elderly. With regard to the geriatric physiopathology process, osteoporosis and the following bone fracture caused by a fall, is one of the most common and serious problems  in elderly people. Other important factors responsible for old people`s bedridden at hospital are respectively as follow: femoral fractures, sub durra hemorrhage, and injury or damage of brain. Only after being involved in a problem or injury the elders notice the risk factors and the ways to prevent them. Therefore, the investigation and recognition of precaution measures are necessary in case of osteoporosis and falling in elder people. The primary prevention of falling in elderly people is the prevention of osteoporosis. Therefore, screening of peripheral and central bone density is necessary for those who are at risk.
The present article is a review study which has been prepared by gathering and reviewing thirty articles about recognition of risk factors and preventing osteoporosis and falling down in elderly people.
From review of literature it was concluded that the following measures should be taken in order to prevent the elderly people from any kind of injury:
A - Identification and Assessment of elderly people with high risk exposure 
B - Decreasing or eliminating the risk factors by:
- Body & physical exercise
- Taking tablets
- Appropriate diet
- Multiple interventions

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • elderly people
  • bone Fracture
  • Falling
  • Prevention
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