بررسی فعالیت عصبی-عضلانی حین حرکت در آب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی

2 استاد تمام دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی

10.22037/jrm.2013.1100109

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف: از آنجا که سیگنال پیچیده الکترومایوگرافی[1] (EMG) به وسیله سیستم عصبی کنترل می­شود و به خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و آناتومیکی عضله بستگی دارد، می­تواند برای مطالعه هماهنگی و کنترل حرکت مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. به دلیل ارتباط بین مقدار موج EMG و نیروی عضله، از این تکنیک برای مطالعه فعالیت عصبی- عضلانی در تکالیف پاسچرال، حرکات عملکردی و شرایط کاری و برنامه­های آموزشی و درمانی استفاده شده است. با توجه به سمت گیری توجه محققان حوزه­های فیزیوتراپی، توان­بخشی و ورزش و سایر رشته­های مرتبط با آناتومی، بیومکانیک و حرکت شناسی به اثرات حرکت در آب به ویژه بر عملکرد عضلات، استفاده از EMG سطحی در شنا و حرکات آبی جهت ثبت و عینی نمودن فعالیت عضلانی رو به رشد است. با عنایت به تفاوت ماهوی محیط آب و خشکی، استفاده از EMG در آب متفاوت از خشکی است. بنابراین شاهد مواجهه با چالش­هایی در رابطه با عایق بندی و چسب زدن الکترود­ها و تجهیزات برای مدت نسبتا طولانی در این مطالعات هستیم. در این مقاله، مروری بر مطالعات مختلف، چالش­های پیش روی ثبت EMG در آب و حرکات مختلفی که با استفاده از این تکنیک مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند و نتایج این مطالعات انجام شده است.
مواد و روش ها: جستجوی مقالات در پایگاه­های اطلاعاتی معتبر نظیرPub Med, Scince Direct Mendely با جستجوی کلمات  EMG، بیومکانیک، فعالیت عصبی-عضلانی، تمرین در آب انجام  و بررسی نهایی بر روی بیش از 30 مقاله با ارتباط مستقیم انجام شد.
نتیجه گیری:

در این مطالعه، رویکردهای روش شناسی کمی سازی فعالیت عضله در آب و عوامل اثرگذار در حین حرکت در آب مطرح شد. بر اساس تحقیقات انجام شده، فعالیت عضلانی حین حرکت در آب تحت تاثیر جهت، سرعت و جریان آب قرار می‌گیرد. آب محیط منحصر به ‌فردی را فراهم می کند که در آن نیروی جاذبه و بارگذاری روی مفاصل کاهش می یابد در حالی که خود آب مقاومتی نسبت به حرکت ایجاد می کند.


 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of neuromuscular activity during movement in water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Alirezaei 1
  • Heidar Sadeghi 2
1 PhD Candidate in sport biomechanics, Department of Sport Biomechanics, Faculty of physical education and Sport science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran. (Corresponding author) t_alirezai@yahoo.com
2 Full Professor of Faculity of physical education and Sport science, Department of Sport Biomechanics, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Since, the complex electromyographic signal (EMG) is controlled by CNS during muscle contraction and depends on physiologic and anatomic characteristics of muscle; it can be used in studying coordination and control of movement. Because of the relationship between quantities of EMG signal and muscle force, this technique has been used for studying the neuromuscular activity in postural tasks, functional movements, ergonomic conditions and training as well as clinical programs. Since motion in water has a special effect on muscle activity, and surface EMG is a great tool in recording and visualization of muscle activity. Its use has expanded among those who have a special interest in the effect of muscle motion such as researchers in the field of rehabilitation, sport and other areas related to biomechanics and kinesiology. With regard to the inherent differences between water and land, use of surface EMG is different. Challenges related to water proofing, sealing the electrodes and instruments when recording EMG signals for long duration is evident. In this review article, by examining different studies, challenges of recording EMG in water as well as various activities which have been examined by this method and their results will be reviewed. Searching for the articles was done on: EMG, Biomechanics, Neuromuscular activity, Aquatic Exercise in some related databases such as Pub Med, Science Direct and Mendely.    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • EMG
  • Biomechanics
  • Neuromuscular activity
  • Aquatic Exercise
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