اثر معنا در وقوع ناروانی در بزرگسالان لکنتی و غیر لکنتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد گروه گفتاردرمانی ، دانشکده توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران

2 مربی گروه گفتاردرمانی ، دانشکده توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران ، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه ادبیات نمایشی ، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه تهران، تهران ، ایران

4 استادیار گروه آمار زیستی ، دانشکده مدیریت و اطلاع رسانی پزشکی ، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران ، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2013.1100114

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
درک بهتر ماهیت پیچیده و چند وجهی لکنت مستلزم بررسی جنبه های مختلف آن می باشد لذا مطالعه لکنت از جنبه های زبانی و بررسی تاثیر عوامل زبانشناختی در آن از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. هدف این پژوهش نیز بررسی فراوانی بروز ناروانی در کلمات و ناکلمات در بزرگسالان لکنتی فارسی زبان می باشد.
مواد و روش ها
جمعیت مورد مطالعه ١٥  بزرگسال لکنتی (١7 سال به بالا ) و غیر لکنتی در مطابقت سنی (± ٧ماه ) و جنسی با افراد لکنتی مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند . برای بررسی ابتدا فهرست کلمات و ناکلمات تعیین و تهیه گردید. به این ترتیب که ٦٠ کلمه دو تا شش هجایی با فراوانی وقوع متنوع در زبان فارسی انتخاب شد و سپس ٦٠ ناکلمه بر اساس کلمات با تغییر حداقل ٥٠ درصد واج های کلمه ساخته شد. افراد شرکت کننده کلمات و ناکلمات را تکرار کردند و داده ها ثبت و ضبط و تجزیه و تحلیل شد .
یافته ها
یافته های نشان می دهند که فراوانی ناروانی در کلمات و ناکلمات در بزرگسالان لکنتی به طور معناداری از افراد غیر لکنتی بیشتر است. یافته های های دیگر حاکی از تفاوت معنادار (٠5/٠ >P) نسبت بروز ناروانی در کلمات و ناکلمات به یکدیگر در لکنتی ها و غیرلکنتی ها است.
نتیجه گیری
نتایج  حاکی از افزایش معنادار میزان ناروانی گفتار در تکرار ناکلمات در مقایسه با تکرار کلمات در بزرگسالان لکنتی و غیر لکنتی فارسی زبان می باشد. مقایسه لکنتی ها و غیر لکنتی ها نشان داد که هم در تکرار ناکلمات و هم در تکرار کلمات افزایش ناروانی به طور معنادار در لکنتی ها بیشتر از غیر لکنتی ها است . به علاوه نسبت بروز ناروانی در کلمات و ناکلمات به یکدیگر در لکنتی ها به طور معناداری بیشتر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Semantic influence on stuttering ocurrance in adults who stutter and who do not stutter

نویسندگان [English]

  • Atoosa Mozafar Zangeneh 1
  • Sheyda Pooladi 2
  • Behrouz Mahmoudi Bakhtiari 3
  • Hamid Haghani 4
1 Msc of speechtherapy, Rehabilitation Faculty , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Corresponding author) mansourferdowsi@yahoo.com
2 Lecture of Department of speechtherapy, Rehabilitation Faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
3 Assistant Professor , Department of Dramatic Literature, Art Faculty , University of Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics, Management and Medical information Faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Studying the various aspects of stuttering is necessary for better understanding of complex and multi -factorial nature of stuttering. Therefore, researching stuttering from a linguistic perspective and the effect of linguistic factors on it has particular importance. The goal of this study was to investigate non- fluency frequency of words and non- words in Persian speaking adults who stutter and who do not stutter.
 
Materials and Methods: In this research, 15 Farsi speaking adults who did not stuttered (+ 17 years old) were matched in age (±7 months) and sex, with 15 adults who stutter. For this study, two lists of words and non- words were prepared. 60 words containing 2 6-syllables with various frequency of occurrence in Farsi were selected. Then, 60 non- words were made based on words that at least 50 percent of their phonemes were changed. Participants repeated words and non- words and data was collected and analyzed. 
 
Results: Findings from this study showed that non- fluency frequency on words and  non- words in adults who stutter was significantly higher than adults who do not stutter . Other findings indicate that the ratio of non- fluency occurrence on words and non- words was significantly different on words and non- words (P< 0/05).
 
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate a significant increase in non- fluency frequency on non- words compared to words in adults who stutter and who do not stutter. Comparison between stuttering and non- stuttering shows that in repeating both lists, a non- fluency increase in adults who stutter is remarkably higher. In addition, the ratio of non- fluency occurrence on words and non- words is significantly higher in adults who stutter.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • semantic
  • stuttering
  • nonfluency
  • word and nonword repetation
  1. Brown SF. The influence of grammatical function on the incidence of stuttering. Journal of Speech Disorders, 1937. 2: p.207-215. 
  2. Brown SF. The loci of stuttering in the speech sequence. Journal of Speech Disorders, 1945. 10:p. 181–192.
  3. Brown SF, Moren A. The frequency of stuttering in relation to word length during oral reading. Journal of Speech Disorders, 1942. 7: p. 153–159.
  4. Johnson W., Brown S.F., Stuttering with relation to various speech sounds. Journal of Speech Disorders, 1935. 21: p. 481–496.
  5. Shafiyi B, Rezayi rad A. Cluttering, Esfahan University of medical sciences publication, Tehran 1389. [In persian]
  6. Dworzynski K, Howell P. Predicting stuttering from phonetic complexity in German. J Fluency Disord. 2004; 29(2):149-73.
  7. Richels C, Buhr A, Conture E, Ntourou K. Utterence complexity and stuttering on function words in pre school age children who stutter. J Fluency Disord. 2010; 35(3):314-31.
  8. Bosshardt HG. Cognitive processing load as a determinant of stuttering: Summary of a research program. Clin Linguist Phon. 2006; 20(5):371-85.
  9. Samadi J, Modaresi Y. Porgharib J., Mahjob H., Influence of word position and type on stuttering occurrence in 6-10 years old childeren in Hamedan [MSc thesis] , Rehabilitation Faculty, Iran University of Medical Sciences,1380. [In persian]
  10. Kashani dost Z, Pooladi SH.  Kamali M, Modaresi Y. The occurrence of stuttering in the content and functional words in adults who stutter [MSc thesis], Rehabilitation Faculty, Iran University of Medical Sciences, 1384. [In persian]
  11. Hares Abadi F, Pooladi SH, Kamali M, Mahmodi Bakhtiyari B. Determine and compare the influence of length and syntactic complexity on frequency of stuttering in 4-6 years old childeren who stutter and who do not stutter [MSc thesis], Rehabilitation Faculty, Iran University of Medical Sciences, 1387. [In persian]
  12. Azimi T, Pooladi SH, Haghani H, Mahmodi Bakhtiyari B. The influence of length and syntactic complexity on frequency of stuttering in children and adults who stutter and who do not stutter [MSc thesis], Rehabilitation Faculty, Iran University of Medical Sciences, 1389. [In persian]
  13. Buhr A, Zebrowski P. Sentence’s position and syntactic complexity of stuttering earlly childhood: a longitudinal study Journal of Fluency Disorders, 2009; 33(3): 155-172.
  14. Seery RVW, Nicoline Ambrose, Rebecca Throneburg. Non-Word Repetition by School Age Children Who Stutter. Presentation at the ASHA Convention in Miami, Florida 2006. Session #1329, Poster #90.
  15. Dayalu VN, Kalinowski J, Stuart A.Stuttering Frequency on Meaningful and Nonmeaningful Words in Adults Who Stutter. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2005; 57(4):193-201.
  16. Bakhtiyar M, Soleymani Z, Mahmodi Bakhtiyari B. Comparison of nonword repetition ability in 4-8 years old children who stutter and who do not stutter. Journal of Rehabilitation Research. 1385; 27(7): 47-51. [In persian]
  17. Hasani H. The Persian word is widely used today. Iran language institute, Tehran 1384. [In persian]
  18. Alamolhoda SM. Phonostatics and phonotactics of syllable in Persian. Finnish Oriental Society, Helsinki, 2000.
  19. Guitar B. Stuttering: an integrated approach to its nature and treatment, Third Ed, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006.
  20. Hegde MN. Propositional speech and stuttering. Journal of All India Institutes of Speech and Hearing, 1970; 1: 21–24.
  21. Ludlow, C. L., Siren, K., & Zikira, M. (1997). Speech production learning in adults with chronic developmental stuttering. In W. Hulstijn, H. F. M. Peters, & P. H. H. M. van Lieshout (Eds.), Speech production: Motor control, brain research, and fluency disorders: Proceedings from the third world conference on fluency disorders (pp. 221-506). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.
  22. Anderson JD, Wagovich SA, Hall NE. Nonword repetition skills in young childrenwho do and do not stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders 2006; 31(3): 177–199.
  23. Hakim HB, Ratner NB; Nonword repetition abilities of children who stutter: An exploratory study. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2004; 29(3): 179-199.
  24. Namasivayam AK, van Lieshout P. Investigating speech motor practice and learning in people who stutter. J Fluency Disord. 2008; 33(1):32-51.
  25. Smith A, Sadagopan N, Walsh B, Weber-Fox C. Increasing phonological complexity reveals heightened instability in inter-articulatory coordination in adults who stutter. J Fluency Disord. 2010; 35(1):1-18.