مروری جامع بر اختلال دست نویسی رشدی

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه کاردرمانی، دانشکده توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه کاردرمانی، دانشکده توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

3 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تبریز

4 دانشیار، گروه کاردرمانی، دانشکده توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2016.1100175

چکیده

مقدمه واهداف
دست­نویسی یا نوشتن ترسیم دیداری از زبان گفتاری است. این مهارت برای موفقیت در مدرسه و دانشگاه، بیشتر مشاغل و فعالیت­های فردی و اجتماعی لازم و ضروری است. اختلال نوشتن یا دیسگرافیا به عنوان اختلال در بیان نوشتاری تعریف می­شود درحالیکه از دانش­آموز انتظار می­رود با توجه به سن، هوش و وضعیت آموزشی، عملکرد مناسبی داشته باشد. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی ابعاد و عوامل بروز اختلال نوشتن و معرفی راهکارهای مناسب برای ارزیابی و درمان به درمانگران و متخصصین آموزشی می­باشد.
مواد و روش­ها
برای تدوین این مقاله به منابع مربوط از سال­های 1992 تا 2014 میلادی استناد گردیده است. به این منظور با استفاده از واژه­های Handwriting، Poor Writer، Dysgraphia، Randomized Clinical Trial، Evaluation و Intervention و واژه­های فارسی دست­نویسی، اختلال نوشتن رشدی، ارزیابی، مداخله، تحقیقات مداخله­ای
در بانک­های اطلاعاتیPub Med ، Science Direct،Scopus ،Google Scholar ، MAGIRAN و SID یک جستجوی جامع صورت پذیرفته است و در مرحله­ی اول، 99 مقا له­ی مرتبط با موضوع، انتخاب گردید.  بر مبنای یک روش گزینشی هدفمند، 51 مقاله انتخاب گردیده­است که در کنار سه کتاب، منابع این تحقیق محسوب می­شود.
یافته­ها
ابزارهای ارزیابی استاندارد متعددی در دسترس می­باشد. آزمون جامع و استاندارد فارسی که بتوان از آن برای ارزیابی عملکرد نوشتن دانش­آموزان استفاده نمود در ایران موجود نمی­باشد. درمان به روش­های متعدد انجام می­شود. اما تعداد تحقیقات مداخله­ای به خصوص مداخلات مبتنی بر کار و فعالیت محدود می­باشد.
نتیجه­گیری
استفاده از ابزارهای مناسب برای ارزیابی و تلفیقی از رویکردهای مختلف در قالب مطالعات کارآزمایی بالینی به درمانگران و متخصصین حیطه آموزش سفارش می­گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

An overview of developmental dysgraphia

نویسندگان [English]

  • Naser Havaei 1
  • Akram Azad 2
  • Mandana Rezaei 3
  • Afsoon Hasani Mehraban 4
  • Mehdi Alizadeh 4
1 PhD Student, Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences.Tehran.Iran
2 Assistance Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences.Tehran.Iran
3 Assistance Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.Tabriz.Iran
4 Associated Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences.Tehran.Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Handwriting is defined as a visible trace of spoken language. This is an essential skill for success in school and university performance, most jobs, and individual and social activities. Dysgraphia is defined as difficulty in school student’s writing expression while he or she is expected to have proper performance with regard to age, intelligence, and educational state. The objective of the present study was to review the aspects and factors affecting dysgraphia and to introduce appropriate means for assessment and treatment to therapists and educational specialists.
Methods and Materials: The databases of Google scholar, Scopus, Pub med, Science direct, MAGIRAN, and SID were searched using the keywords Handwriting, Poor Writer, Dysgraphia, RCT, Evaluation, and Intervention for the period between 1992-2014. A total of 99 related papers and three text books were found at first. Based on a purposeful selection method, 51 articles were selected, which besides the three books, make up the study references.
Results: Many standard assessment instruments are available; however, there is no standardized Persian instrument to assess student's handwriting. Treatment is done in several ways, yet task-oriented interventional studies are limited.
Conclusion: Assessments with appropriate instruments and using combination of different approaches for clinical trial interventional studies are recommended to therapists and professionals in education.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Handwriting
  • Developmental dysgraphia
  • Assessment
  • Intervention
  • Interventional studies
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