بررسی تاثیر بازی ساختار یافته بر عملکرد اجرایی کودکان اتیسم با عملکرد بالا 5 – 12 سال

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی گروه کاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دفتر تحقیقات و فن آوری دانشجویان، دانشجوی کارشناس ارشد کاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه کاردرمانی، مرکز تحقیقات فیزیوتراپی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

4 روانپزشک، دانشیار دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

5 دانشیار گروه علوم پایه، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2016.1100196

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی تاثیر بازی ساختار یافته بر عملکرد اجرایی کودکان اتیسم با عملکرد بالا 5 تا 12 سال بود.
مواد و روش ها
پژوهش پیش رو به شیوه­ی نیمه آزمایشی و با طرح پیش­آزمون- پس­آزمون با گروه گواه اجرا شد. جامعه­ی آماری پژوهش حاضر نیز شامل کلیه­یکودکان مبتلا به اتیسم با عملکرد بالا 5 تا 12 سال مراجعه کننده به مراکز درمانی شهر تهران در سال 1394 بودند. نمونه پژوهش 24 کودک اتیسم با عملکرد بالا بود که از میان کلیه­ی کودکان مبتلا به اتیسم مراجعه کننده به مراکز درمانی کودکان شهر تهران انتخاب و در دو گروه آزمایش و گواه گمارده شدند. برای جمع­آوری داده­ها از پرسشنامه درجه بندی رفتاری کارکردهای اجرایی استفاده گردید. گروه­ آزمایش، بازی ساختار یافته را طی 16 جلسه 90 دقیقه­ای دریافت نمود.
نتایج
نتایج تحلیل کواریانس چند متغیری نشان داد که بین میانگین نمرات توانایی نظارت، توانایی برنامه ریزی، توانایی سازماندهی، توانایی حافظه کاری، توانایی شروع کردن، توانایی کنترل هیجان، توانایی تغییر و توانایی مهار بین دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد (05/0P<). به عبارت دیگر بازی ساختاریافته بر کارکردهای اجرایی مؤثر بوده است (05/0>P).
نتیجه گیری
طبق نتایج، بازی­های ساختار یافته لگو درمانی کارکردهای اجرایی را در کودکان اتیسم با عملکرد بالا به طور معناداری در پس آزمون گروه آزمایش افزایش داده است. لگو درمانی با استفاده از علایق طبیعی کودک و انگیزه یادگیری، تغییر رفتار را ایجاد می­کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Efficacy of structured play on the executive functioning in 5- to 12-year-old children with high-functioning autism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Navid Mirzakhany 1
  • Nasim Pourjabbar 2
  • Mehdi Rezaee 3
  • Parvin Dibajnia 4
  • Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban 5
1 Lecturer in Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Student Research Committee, MSc Student in Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 PhD, Assistant Professor in Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Associated Professor, Psychiatrist, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 PhD in Biostatistics, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: The present study intended to investigate the efficacy of structured play on the executive functioning in 5- to 12-year-old children with high-functioning autism.
Materials and Methods: A pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design with an experimental group and a control group was chosen for the present study. The population of the study included all the 24 5- to 12-year-old children with high-functioning autism who went to the Children's Medical Center in Tehran in 2015. Then, they were assigned to the experimental and control groups. For the data collection, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function were used. Structured play was taught to the experimental group for 16 sessions, each lasting for 90 minutes.
Results: The results of covariance analysis showed significant increase in executive functioning in experimental group compared with that in control group (p<0.05), revealing that structured play was effective on executive functioning (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The findings have important implications for the education and mental health of children with high-functioning autism. Lego therapy denominated Behavioral change using the child's natural interest and motivation to learn.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Structured play
  • Executive Function
  • Autism
  • High-functioning
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