بررسی دانش و نگرش معلمان ابتدایی شهر تهران در مورد اختلالات یادگیری و نقص-توجه/بیش‌فعالی و ارتباط آن با ویژگی‌های معلمان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 روان‌پزشک، مرکز تحقیقات علوم رفتاری دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 فوق تخصص روان‌پزشکی کودک و نوجوان، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، بیمارستان امام حسین، بخش روان‌پزشکی

3 کارشناس ارشد روانشناسی، مرکز تحقیقات علوم رفتاری دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

4 دکتری روانشناسی بالینی، مرکز تحقیقات علوم رفتاری دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2016.1100200

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
اختلالات یادگیری و بیش‌فعالی/نقص­توجه از شایع‌ترین اختلالات دوره کودکی به شمار می­رود که در بسیاری از موارد با یکدیگر هم­آیند بوده و تأثیر فراوانی ازنظر تحصیلی بر زندگی و آینده کودکان مبتلا دارد. ازاین‌روی، دانش و نگرش در خصوص این اختلالات از سوی معلمان به‌خصوص در سال­های اولیه تحصیلی از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. هدف از انجام  پژوهش پیش رو بررسی دانش و نگرش معلمان ابتدایی شهر تهران در مورد اختلال نقص­توجه/بیش‌فعالی و ارتباط آن با ویژگی‌های معلمان بود.
مواد و روش‌ها
این مطالعه بر روی 200 نفر از معلمان ابتدایی تهران انجام شد. نمونه­گیری به‌صورت خوشه­ای از مناطق آموزش‌ و پرورش در چهار قسمت شمال، جنوب، شرق و غرب تهران انجام شده است و سپس، از بین آن‌ها مدارس نهایی به‌صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند. بررسی با استفاده از سه پرسشنامه شامل اطلاعات جمعیت شناختی، سنجش دانش و نگرش اختلال نقص توجه/بیش‌فعالی و سنجش دانش و نگرش اختلال یادگیری انجام شد. اعتبار پرسشنامه به تائید پنج نفر از روان‌پزشکان کودک رسید و برای بررسی پایایی آن، آزمون باز آزمون انجام شد که ضریب آلفای کرونباخ 89/0 به دست آمد.
یافته‌ها
بین دانش و نگرش معلمان درباره اختلالات یادگیری و دانش و نگرش آن­ها درباره بیش‌فعالی/نقص توجه رابطه مستقیم و معناداری مشاهده شد. میانگین نمره دانش هر دو اختلال در زنان به‌صورت معناداری بالاتر از میانگین مردان بود، اما بین دانش و نگرش معلمان درباره اختلالات یادگیری و نقص­توجه/بیش­فعالی با سن، مدرک تحصیلی و سابقه تدریس آن‌ها رابطه معناداری دیده نشد.
نتیجه‌گیری
معلمانی که درباره یکی از این دو اختلال دانش بیشتر و نگرش مثبت­تری داشتند، در اختلال دیگر نیز نمرات بالاتری به دست آوردند. معلمان زن دانش بیشتری درباره این دو اختلال نسبت به معلمان مرد داشتند. به نظر می­رسد معلمان مرد نیازمند آموزش بیشتری در این زمینه می­باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the knowledge and attitude of primary school teachers in Tehran towards Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Learning Disorders and their relation to teacher’s characteristics

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nina Salamatbakhsh 1
  • Mojgan Khademi 2
  • Simasadat Noorbakhsh 3
  • Sepideh Rajezi Esfahani 4
  • Rozita Davari Ashtiani 2
  • Katayoon Razjouyan 2
1 Behavioral Sciences Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran andDepartment of Psychiatry, Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran
3 Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Behavioral Sciences Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and aim: Learning Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are considered among the most common childhood disorders which occur concomitantly in many cases and affect the life and future of children as long as their education is concerned. Thus, knowledge and attitude towards these disorders have been given much importance by teachers, especially during the early years of education. The purpose of the present study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of primary school teachers in Tehran towards Learning Disability and Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder and to investigate their relationship with teachers’ characteristics.
Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 200 primary school teachers in Tehran. Cluster sampling was carried out in five school districts in the north, south, east, west, and center of Tehran and then the final schools were selected randomly from among them. Three questionnaires including demographic information, Knowledge and Attitudes towards Learning Disability, and Knowledge and Attitudes towards Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were administered. The validity of the questionnaires were confirmed by five child and adolescent psychiatrists and the reliability of the questionnaires were estimated to be 0.89, using Cronbach's Alpha.
Results: There was a positive significant correlation between knowledge and attitude’s scores on the two disorders. The mean of female participants' knowledge scores was higher than that of the male participants on both disorders. No relationship was observed between age, educational level, and educational experiences, and teachers’ knowledge and attitude.
Conclusion: The teachers who had more knowledge and more positive attitudes towards a disorder received higher scores on the other disorder. Female teachers had more knowledge about AD/HD and LD compared with male teachers. Therefore, it seems that male teachers need more education in this regard.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Learning disability
  • Teachers
  • Knowledge
  • Attitude
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