مروری بر آموزش مراقبت به والدین کودکان دارای فلج مغزی

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه کاردرمانی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، مرکز تحقیقات توانبخشی اعصاب اطفال، گروه کاردرمانی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2016.1100202

چکیده

 کودکان دارای فلج مغزی از ابتدای تولد با آسیب­های متفاوتی روبرو هستند. بنابراین دریافت خدمات از سوی متخصصین مختلف ضروری به نظر می­رسد که نیازمند صرف هزینه­ی مالی و زمانی بسیار است. با توجه به اینکه مراقبت نامناسب والدین گاهی وضعیت فعلی کودکان را تشدید می کند و میزان آموزش و مداخله در هر جلسه درمانی در کلینیک، برای ایجاد تغییرات نوروپلاستیک درمغز و تعامل با محیط ناکافی می باشد، لازم است مداخلات و آموزش­ها به صورتی ارائه شود تا علاوه بر تأثیر بیشتر بر عملکرد کودکان، در وقت و هزینه­ی والدین و متخصصین صرفه جویی شود. در مطالعه­ی پیش رو،  مروری روایتی بر آموزش مراقبت به والدین کودکان دارای فلج مغزی انجام می­گردد .
مواد و روش­ها
با توجه به هدف پژوهش حاضر، منابع مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. پایگاه­های داده­هایPub med, OVID, ProQuest, Web of science, Elsevier, OT seeker, SID, Magiran ,IRAN MEDEX, MEDLIB و موتور جستجوگر Google scholar با کلید واژه­هایی شامل ارائه مداخلات (caring, self-care, home nursing)، شرکت کننده­ها (parents, caregivers, mother)، نوع مداخله (teaching, training, education)، و ناتوانی (cerebral palsy or physical disabilities) به گونه ای سازمان یافته جستجو شد. مقالات از 1990تا ژوئن 2015 بررسی شدند. عنوان و چکیده 427 مقاله مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
یافته­ها
14 مقاله در مرور وارد شد. اثرگذاری آموزش مراقبت در مطالعات از دو وجه والد و کودک، عوامل تاثیر گذار بر پیروی والد از آموزش­ها و ارائه آموزش­ها از طرق مختلف مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است.
نتیجه گیری
آموزش مراقبت به مراقب کودک دارای فلج مغزی بر سلامت روانی مراقب و هم­چنین بر مشارکت کودک در فعالیت­های روزمره زندگی و عملکرد حرکتی ظریف و درشت وی نیز تاثیر مثبتی دارد. ولی بررسی­های بیشتری برای ارائه روش و محتوایی متناسب با نیازهای مراقب برای آموزش و افزایش ارتباط بین مراقب، متخصص و مراقبان با شرایط مشابه ضروری به نظر می­رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Review of caring training for caregivers of children with cerebral palsy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Nobakht 1
  • Mahdi Rassafiani 2
1 PhD candidate, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Associated Professor, Occupational Therapy Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and aim: Children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) encounter different pathologies since their births. Therefore, it is seems necessary for them to receive professional services that require spending so much money and time. Considering the fact that parents’ inappropriate care sometimes can unwittingly exacerbate these children’s conditions and the amount of education and intervention in each therapy session is insufficient to bring about brain neuroplastic changes and interaction with the environment, it is necessary to offer education and training in a way that they can have greater impact on the performance of the children and save time and costs for the parents and professionals. The purpose of the present study was to narratively review caring training for caregivers of children with CP.
Materials and methods: Initially, related literature was reviewed. Google scholar, PubMed, ProQuest, Elsevier, OVID, Web of science, Elsevier, OT seeker, SID, Magiran, IRAN MEDEX, and MEDLIB were throroughly searched. The combinations of keywords including the interventions (caring, self-care, home nursing), participants (parents, caregivers, mother), intervention (teaching, training, education), and disability (CP and physical disabilities) were used. Articles were searched from 1990 to June 2015. Titles and abstracts of 427 Article were reviewed.
Results: A total of 14 studies were included in the search results. The impact of education on both parent and the child, factors influencing parents following the training, and various methods of training were studied.
Conclusion: Caring training for caregivers of children with CP has a positive effect on caregiver’s mental health and the participation of children in activities of daily living and their fine and gross motor function. But further investigations are required to provide content suited to the needs of caregivers and increase communication between caregivers, professionals, and caregivers with similar conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cerebral palsy
  • Caring
  • Training
  • Caregiver
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