مقایسه فعالیت الکتریکی عضلات کوادریسپس بین سه نوع انقباض اکستنسور زانو با بارهای مختلف در زنان جوان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای بیومکانیک ورزشی، استادیار دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 دکترای حرکات اصلاحی، استادیار دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، کرج، ایران

4 کارشناس ارشد تربیت بدنی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و هدف
انتخاب مناسب نوع انقباض برای دستیابی به آمادگی و قدرت عضله اهمیت زیادی دارد، به ویژه زمانی که هدف اصلی، بهبود قدرت بخش خاصی از کوادریسپس باشد. بنابراین، هدف پژوهش حاضر مقایسه فعالیت عضلات کوادریسپس بین سه نوع انقباض اکستنسور زانو با بارهای مختلف در زنان جوان است.
مواد و روش­ها
20 زن جوان با میانگین سن 5/4±7/24 سال، قد 4/9±3/168 سانتی­متر و وزن 2/7±6/62 کیلوگرم برای شرکت در پژوهش حاضر داوطلب شده و انقباضات ایزومتریک، کانسنتریک و اکسنتریک کوادریسپس را با بارهایی معادل 30-80 % وزنه یک تکرار بیشینه با دینامومتر ایزوکینتیک اجرا کردند. اندازه­گیری فعالیت وستوس­مدیالیس، وستوس­لترالیس و رکتوس­فموریس با الکترومایوگرافی 8 کاناله انجام شد. از آنالیز واریانس با اندازه­گیری مکرر و آزمون بونفرونی جهت تحلیل داده­ها، استفاده گردید.
یافته­ها
بین فعالیت عضلات پای برتر و غیربرتر تفاوتی وجود نداشت (05/0<P). فعالیت کوادریسپس کلی در انقباض اکسنتریک کمتر از کانسنتریک و ایزومتریک (000/0=P) و فعالیت وستوس مدیالیس و وستوس لترالیس بیشتر از رکتوس فموریس بود(002/0=P). در بارهای سبک­تر، وستوس لترالیس از دوعضله دیگر فعال­تر بود (01/0>P)، اما در بارهای سنگین­تر، تفاوتی مشاهده نشد. فعالیت کوادریسپس کلی در بارهای سبک­تر، در انقباض اکسنتریک کمتر از دو انقباض دیگر بود (01/0>P)، ولی در بارهای سنگین­تر تفاوتی مشاهده نشد.
نتیجه­گیری
از نتایج پژوهش حاضر چنین استنباط می­شود که گروه کوادریسپس بیشترین فعالیت را در طی انقباض کانسنتریک دارد. یافته جالب توجه­تر آنکه با تغییر نوع انقباض از اکنستریک به کانسنتریک، درگیری عضله وستوس مدیالیس بیشتر می­شود. چنین نتایجی در شرایط پاتولوژیک مزمن مفصل پاتلوفمورال کاربرد زیادی دارد، زیرا این اختلالات غالبا به ضعف کوادریسپس به ویژه بخش داخلی آن نسبت داده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Quadriceps Muscle Electrical Activity among Three Types of Knee Extensor Contractions with Different Loads in Young Females

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Hossein Hosseini 1
  • Farzaneh Saki 2
  • Shahabeddin Bagher 3
  • Atefeh Yarahmadi 4
1 PhD in Sport Biomechanics, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 PhD in Corrective Exercise, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport sciences, Bu-Ali-Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
3 PhD student in Corrective Exercise, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, University of Kharazmi, Karaj, Iran
4 MSc in Physical Education, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Bu-Ali-Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Selection of contraction type to achieve muscle strength and fitness is very important, especially when the main goal is improvement of certain parts of quadriceps. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to compare the quadriceps muscles activity among three types of knee extensor contractions with different loads in young females.
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 healthy females with the mean age of 24.7±4.5 years, heaight 168.3±9.4 cm, and weight 62.6±7.2 kg, volunteered to participate in the study and performed isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions with loads weighing 30-80% 1RM weight using isokinetic dynamometer. Measurement of vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris activity was carried out using 8-channels electromyography. Data analysis was performed running repeated measures analysis of variance and bonferroni tests.
Results: There was no difference observed between dominant and non-dominant lower limb in muscle activity (p>0.05). Quadriceps activity in eccentric contraction was less than concentric and isometric contractions (P=0.000), and vastus medialis and vastus lateralis activities were more than that of rectus femoris (P=0.002). In the lighter loads, vastus lateralis was more active than the other two muscles (P<0.01), but in the higher loads, no significant difference was observed. In lighter loads, quadriceps activity in eccentric contraction was less than those of the other two contractions (P<0.01), but in higher loads, no significant difference was noticed.
Conclusion: The results of the current study suggest that quadriceps group has the most activity during concentric contraction. The more interesting result is that by changing the contraction type from eccentric to concentric, recruitment of vastus medialis increases. These results are very important for chronic pathological conditions of the patellofemoral joint since these disorders are often attributed to the weakness of quadriceps, especially its medial part.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Quadriceps Muscles
  • Knee Extension
  • Contraction Type
  • Load
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