بررسی وضعیت تفکر انتقادی دانشجویان علوم پزشکی و تأثیر برنامه ی درسی دانشگاه ها بر آن: مقاله مروری

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دفتر تحقیقات و فناوری دانشجویی. دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد کاردرمانی، ، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دکترای کاردرمانی، استادیار گروه کاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2015.1100231

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
ﺗﻔﻜﺮ اﻧﺘﻘﺎدی یک ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ اﺳﺎﺳﻲ است ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮاﻧﺎﻳﻲ داﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎن را در ﻣﻬﺎرت ﺣﻞ ﻣﺴأﻟﻪ افزایش میدهد و یکی از ﺑﺮوندادﻫﺎی اﺻﻠﻲ آﻣﻮزش ﻋﺎﻟﻲ و ﻣﻌﻴﺎرﻫﺎی اﻋﺘﺒﺎرﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎت است. تفکر انتقادی برای رشته های علوم پزشکی اهمیت ویژه ای دارد زیرا دانش آموختگان آن برای بالین بیمار آماده میشوند. انتقال دانش و مهارتهای روانی- حرکتی از محیط کلاس به کلینیک و کاربرد آنها، به تفکر انتقادی نیازمند است. هدف از این مطالعه، مروری بر وضعیت مهارتهای تفکر انتقادی دانشجویان علوم پزشکی و میزان تأثیر برنامه ی درسی دانشگاه ها بر این مهارتهاست.
مواد و روش ها
برای جمع آوری اطلاعات این مطالعه، پایگاه های اطلاعاتی Science direct, Pubmed, Magiran, SID, Iranmedex و مجلات آموزش پزشکی با کلید واژه های تفکر انتقادی، برنامه درسی، دانشجویان، استدلال بالینی، علوم پزشکی و ترکیبی از آن ها در بازه ی زمانی سال 2000 تا 2014 جستجو گردید. مطالعاتی که تفکر انتقادی را در دانشجویان علوم پزشکی در طول تحصیلات دانشگاهی مورد بررسی قرار داده بودند، انتخاب شدند.
یافته ها
از میان 35 مطالعه مرتبط با موضوع، 16 مورد انتخاب شده است که با توجه به موضوع شان (بجز مطالعه سیستماتیک و دلفی که نتایج شان جداگانه بحث شده است ) در سه گروه قرار گرفتند: مطالعاتی که گرایش به تفکرانتقادی را مطرح کردند، پژوهش هایی که گرایش و مهارت های تفکر انتقادی را با هم بررسی نمودند، پژوهش هایی که مهارتهای تفکر انتقادی را مورد مطالعه قرار دادند.
نتیجه گیری

تفکر انتقادی و روش های ارتقای آن باید مورد توجه برنامه ریزان آموزشی قرار گیرد و استفاده از روش های نوین آموزشی در برنامه درسی نهادینه شود. همچنین نیاز به تحقیقات وسیع تری برای شناسایی علل و موانع عدم رشد تفکر انتقادی در نظام آموزش پزشکی حس می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Medical Sciences Students’ Critical Thinking Skills and the Effect of the University Curriculum: A Literature Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Maleki 1
  • Mehdi Rezaee 2
1 Students` Research Office. MSc Student in Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor in Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Critical thinking is a basic cognitive process which improves students’ problem solving ability and is one of the main outputs of academic centers. It has an important role in medical sciences as the students studying these branches of science are getting ready to attend clinical work. Critical thinking helps to convey psychomotor skills from class to clinic. In the present study, we aimed at reviewing medical sciences students’ critical thinking skills and the effect of the universities' curriculums on them.
Materials and Methods: Databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Magiran, SID, Iranmedex, and Iranian medical education magazines were searched from 2000 to 2014. The terms Critical Thinking, Students, curriculum, Medical Sciences, and the combinations were used to search these databases.
Results: From among almost 35 relevant studies, 16 studies were selected. Based on their topics, the studies (except for the systematic review and Delphi study, which are discussed separately) were divided into three groups: 1) The studies that examined disposition to critical thinking, 2) The studies that examined critical thinking skills, and 3) The studies which examined both disposition and skills.
Conclusion: Facilitating students’ critical thinking must be a priority in education and new teaching methods should be used by instructors in the class. Also, we need more extensive studies to explore the barriers of improving critical thinking in students of medical sciences.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Critical thinking
  • Students
  • Medical Sciences
  • Curriculum
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