ارتباط اجرای مستمر آکوپیشن های ورزش و مطالعه با کارکردهای اجرایی در سالمندان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد کاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، هیئت علمی گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران. تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، هیئت علمی گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، مرکز تحقیقات توانبخشی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران. تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
بررسی اثر دراز مدت استفاده از آکوپیشن­ها در ارتقاء توانمندی­های فردی از جمله اقداماتی است که اهمیت کاردرمانی را در زندگی افراد مشخص می­نماید. هدف از مطالعه حاضر پاسخ به این سوال است که آیا افرادی که به­طور مستمر از آکوپیشن­های ورزش و مطالعه استفاده می­کنند، از کارکردهای اجرایی بهتری برخوردار هستند.
مواد و روش­ها
مطالعه­ی حاضر گذشته نگر با 100 شرکت کننده 95-50 سال انجام شد. نمونه­گیری به صورت خوشه­ای لایه­ای در 4 منطقه تهران انجام گرفت. شرکت کننده­ها بر طبق پرسش­نامه دموگرافیک در 4 گروه فقط مطالعه، فقط ورزش، هر دو و هیچکدام قرار گرفتند و سپس برای بررسی کارکرد اجرایی 3 آزمون استروپ، برج لندن و ویسکانسین را انجام دادند. برای بررسی اختلاف میانگین نمرات آزمون کارکرد اجرایی در 4 گروه از آزمون تحلیل واریانس یک طرفه و برای بررسی تفاوت بین گروه از آزمون مقایسه زوج با اصلاح بنفرونی استفاده شد.
یافته­ها
افرادی که هیچ آکوپیشن مستمری (ورزش و مطالعه) از نوجوانی تا زمان حاضر نداشتند در مقایسه با 3 گروه دیگر (فقط مطالعه، فقط ورزش، هر دو) در آزمون­های کارکرد اجرایی به­طور معناداری ضعیف­تر بودند (05/0>P)، اما بین سایر گروه­ها (هر دو فقط ورزش، هر دو فقط مطالعه، فقط ورزش و فقط مطالعه) تفاوت معناداری وجود نداشت.
نتیجه­گیری
افرادی که یکی از آکوپیشن­های ورزش، مطالعه و یا هر دو را انجام می­دادند در مقایسه با افرادی که هیچ کدام از این آکوپیشن­ها را انجام نمی­دادند، از کارکرد اجرایی بهتری برخوردار بودند. به نظر می­رسد انجام زود هنگام دو فعالیت مطالعه و ورزش در سال­های جوانی و ادامه آن تا پیری می­تواند از افت شدید کارکردهای اجرایی در پیری جلوگیری کند، اما این نظریه نیاز به بررسی­های بیشتری در مطالعات طولی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relationship between Continuous Implementation of the Occupations of Sport and Reading with the Executive Functions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Golaleh Hosseini 1
  • Malahat Akbarfahimi 2
  • Afsoon Hassani Mehraban 3
1 MSc Student in Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Science, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation Research Center, School of Rehabilitation Science, Iran University of Medical Science. Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Aim: One consequence of aging is decline of executive functions. Different, factors such as exercise, have effects on executive function. The aim of tthe present study was to answer the question whether the individuals who are consistently engaged in occupations of sport and reading have better executive functions.
Materials and Methods: The current retrospective study was performed on 100 participants aged between 50-95 years old. Cluster layer sampling was conducted in four districts of Tehran. Initially, participants were included in four groups of only reading, only sports, both, and none according to demographic questionnaire. Next, they performed three tests of Stroop, Tower of London, and Wisconsin for evaluating the executive functions. To examine the difference between the average scores of executive functions in the four groups, one-way analysis of variance and to examine the difference between groups, paired t-test with Bonferroni correction were run.
Results: The results of the present study showed that there is a significant difference between people who have no continuous occupations (sports and reading) from adolescence to the present and the other three groups in executive function tests. But no significant difference was observed between the other groups.
Conclusion: People who are doing one of the occupations of sport, reading, or both have better executive functions compared with those who do not do any of these occupations. It seems that early enagagement in sport and reading in younger years and continuing it until aging could prevent a sharp drop in executive functions in aging. But further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate this theory.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • aging
  • Executive Functions
  • Occupation
  • Aerobic sport
  • Reading
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