سیر تحول بازشناسی هیجان در نمونه ای از کودکان ایرانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار علوم اعصاب شناختی، گروه علوم شناختی، پژوهشکده علوم شناختی و مغز، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد روانشناسی بالینی کودک و نوجوان، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2016.1100260

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
از ابتدای زندگی توانایی تمایز تظاهرات چهره ای هیجان در ارتباطات بین فردی نقش مهمی دارد. هدف از این پژوهش تعیین سیر تحول بازشناسی هیجان در نمونه ای از کودکان ایرانی می باشد.
مواد و روش ها
گروه نمونه شامل 242 نفر دانش آموز سال اول تا ششم دبستان در تهران می باشد که با روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای انتخاب شده اند. داده ها با استفاده از آزمون بازشناسی حالات هیجان چهره ای اکمن جمع آوری شد و سپس با روش تحلیل واریانس یک راهه و آزمون تعقیبی توکی مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند.
یافته ها
تحلیل داده های پژوهش نشان می دهد که بین عملکرد دانش آموزان اول دبستان و ششم دبستان تفاوت معناداری در بازشناسی حالات هیجانی وجود دارد(001/0 p<). همچنین دختران عملکرد بالاتری نسبت به پسران در بازشناسی حالات هیجانی دارند(05/0 p<).
نتیجه گیری
نتایج پژوهش بیانگر آن است که همراه با تحول کودک توانایی بازشناسی حالات هیجانی در او افزاایش می یابد و این توانایی در دختران بیشتر از پسران می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developmental Trajectory of Emotion recognition in Sample of Iranian Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vahid Nejati 1
  • Mahdis Maghsudloo 2
  • Mina Moein Eslam 3
1 Associate Professor in Cognitive Sciences, Brain and Cognitive Science Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
2 PhD Student in Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 MA Student in Clinical Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: The ability of emotional face perception is an essential capability for social interaction specially in the early stages of life. The purpose of the present study is evaluation of developmental trajectory of emotional recognition among Iranian children.
Materials and Method: The sample included 242 elementary school students, ranging from the first to the sixth grade. Participants were chosen based on cluster sampling in 4 region of Tehran. Data was collected using Ekman facial recognition test. One way Anova and Tukey test were used for analysis.
Results: Results showed that there is a significant difference between the first graders and the sixth graders in emotion recognition performance. Also, girls were found to have better performance in emotion recognition than boys (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It can be stated that accompanied by child development, the ability to emotional recognition developed through age in school age children and girls have better performance in emotional recognition in that age.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Emotion recognition
  • Development
  • children
  1. Whalen PJ, Rauch SL, Etcoff NL, McInerney SC, Lee MB, Jenike MA. Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions 795 modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. J. Neurosci 1998; 18, 796 411–418.##
  2. Darwin C. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1872.##
  3. Ekman P, Friesen, WV. Unmasking the face. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1975.##
  4. Gosselin P, Beaupré M, Boissonneault A. Perception of genuine and masking smiles in children and adults: sensitivity to traces of anger. J. Genet. Psychol 2002; 163, 58–71.##
  5. Lewis C, Lamb ME. (2003). Fathers’influencesonchildren’s development: the evidence from two-parent families. Eur.J. Psychol.Educ 2003; 18,211–228.##
  6. Young-Browne G, Rosenfield HM, Horowitz FD. Infant discrimination of facial expressions. Child Development 1977; 49:555–562.##
  7. Soken NH, Pick AD. Intermodal perception of happy and angry expressive behaviors by sevenmonth- old infants. Child Development 1992; 63, 787–795.##
  8. Widen SC, Russell J A.  A closer look at preschooler’s freely produced labels for facial expressions. Developmental Psychology 2003; 39(1), 114.##
  9. Pons F, Harris PL, deRosnay M. Emotioncompr hension between3and11years: developmentalperiodsandhier- archicalorganization. Eur.J. Dev.Psychol 2004; 1, 127–152.##
  10. Ekman P. Emotions revealed (2nd ed.). New York: Times Books, 2003.##
  11. Bruce V, Campbell RN, Doherty- Sneddon G, Import A, Langton S, McAuley S, et al. Testing face processing skills in children. Br. J. Dev. Psychol 2000; 18, 319–333.##
  12. Durand K, Gallay M, Seigneuri A, Robichon F, Baudouin J. The development of facial emotion recognition: The role of configural information. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2007; 97, 14–27.##
  13. Mondloch CJ, Maurer D, Ahola S. Becoming a face expert. Psychol. Sci 2006; 17, 930.##
  14. Herba CM, Landau S, Russell T, Ecker C, Phillips ML. The development of emotion-processing in children: Effects of age, emotion, and intensity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2006; 47, 1098–1106.##
  15. Thomas KM, Drevets WC, Whalen PJ, Eccard CH, Dahl RE, Ryan ND, Casey BJ. Amygdala response to facial expressions in children and adults. Biol Psychiatry 2001; 49:309–316.##
  16. De Sonneville LM, Verschoor CA, Njiokiktjien C, OphetVeld V, Toorenaar N, Vranken M. Facial identity and facial emotions: speed, accuracy, and processing strategies in children and adults. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol 2002; 24, 200–213.##
  17. Kolb DA. Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984.##
  18. De Haan M, Nelson CA. Recognition of the mother’s face by six-month- old infants: a neurobehavioral study. Child Dev 1997; 68, 187–210.##
  19. Gao X, Maurer D. Influence of intensity on children's sensitivity to happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions. J Exp Child Psychol. 2009; 102:503–521.##
  20. Batty M, Taylor MJ. The development of emotional face processing during childhood. Dev Sci 2006; 9: 207–220.##
  21. Herba C, Philips M. Annotation: Development of facial expression recognition from  childhood to adolescence: Behavioural and neurological perspectives. Journal of Child  Psychology and Psychiatry 2004; 45, 1185-1198 22.##
  22. Hall JA. Nonverbal sex differences: communication accuracy and expressive style. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984. ##
  23. Gross AL, Ballif B. Children's understanding of emotion from facial expressions and situations: a review. Dev. Rev 1991; 11, 368–398.##
  24. McClure EB, Pope K, Hoberman AJ, Pine DS, Leibenluft E. Facial expression recognition in adolescents with mood and anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2003; 160, 1172-1174.##
  25. Smith M, Walden T. Developmental trends in emotion understanding among a diverse sample of African-American preschool children. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol 1998; 19, 177–197.##
  26. Johnston PJ, Katsikitis M, Carr VJ. A generalised deficit can account for problems in facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychol 2001; 58, 203–227.##
  27. Gagnon M, Gosselin P, Buhs I, Larocque K, Milliard K. Children’s recognition and discrimination of fear and disgust facial expressions. J. Nonverbal Behav 2010; 34, 27–42.##
  28. Izard CE. (1971). The face of emotion. New York: Appleton-Century- Crofts.##
  29. Brown FW, Bryant SE, Reilly MD. Does emotional intelligence—as measured by the EQI—influence transformational leadership and/or desirable outcomes? Leadership and Organization Development Journal 2006; 27, 330-351.##
  30. Pollak SD, Kistler D. Early experience is associated with the development of categorical representations for facial expressions of emotions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002; 99(13), 9027.##
  31. Nelson EE, McClure EB, Monk CS, Zarhn E, Leibenluft E, Pine D, Ernst M. Developmental differences in neuronal engagement during implicit encoding of emotional faces: An event-related fmri study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2003; 44:1015–1024.##
  32. Elphenbin HA, Ambady N. Universal and cultural differences in recognizing emotions. Current direction in psychological science 2003; 12, 159-163 ##
  33. Fivush R, wang Q. Emotion Talk in Mother-Child Conversations of the Shared Past:  The Effects of Culture, Gender, and Event Valence. Journal of cognition and development 2005 6(4), 489–506 ##
  34. Nomura H, Inoue S, Kamimura N, Shimodera S, Mino Y, Gregg L, Tarrier N. A sross-cultural study on expressed emotion in careers of people with dementia and schizophrenia: Japan and England. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatry Epidemiology 2005; 40, 564-570.##
  35. McDonald S, Pearce S. Clinical insights into pragmatic theory: Frontal lobe defi cits and sarcasm. Brain and Language 1996; 53, 81 – 104 36.##
  36. Langton SR, Watt RJ, Bruce II. Do the eyes have it? Cues to the direction of social attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2000; 4, 50 –59.##
  37. Karayanidis F, Kelly M, Chapman P, Mayes A, Johnston P. Facial identity and facial expression matching in 5-12-year-old children and adults. Infant Child Dev 2009; 18, 404–421.10.##
  38. Southgate, V., & Hamilton, A. F. (2008). Unbroken mirrors: challenging a theory of Autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2008; 12, 225–229.##
  39. Turkstra LS, McDonald S, Depompei R. Social information processing in adolescents: Data from normally developing adolescents and preliminary data from their peers with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2001; 16:469–483.##
  40. Schwarzer G. Development of face processing: The effect of faceinversion. Child Development 2000; 71 , 391–401##
  41. Carey S, Diamond R, Woods B. Development of face recognition: a maturational component? Dev. Psychol 1980; 16, 257–269.##
  42. Babchuk WA, Hames RB, Thompson RA. Sex differences in the recognition of infant facial expressions of emotion: The primary caretaker hypothesis. Ethology and Sociobiology, 1985: 6, 89 – 101##
  43. Camras L A, Allison K. Children's understanding of emotional facial expressions and verbal labels.  Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 1985; 9, 84-94. ##
  44. Kharrazi SK, Beheshti–Zadeh M, Hashemian S. The Ability to Recognize Facial Emotional Expressions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients and Normal Peers. Advances in Cognitive Science. 2012; 14(2):2.##