تاثیر کشش استاتیک و دینامیک بر پایداری دینامیک موضعی جابجایی زاویه ای مفاصل اندام تحتانی مردان فعال حین رکاب زدن

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی

2 استاد تمام، گروه بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی مکانیک، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی

10.22037/jrm.2016.1100262

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
مطالعات گذشته در زمینه تاثیر کشش های استاتیک و دینامیک بر عملکرد متعاقب نتایج متناقضی ارائه داده اند. هدف این مطالعه بررسی تاثیر کشش استاتیک و دینامیک عضلات بر پایداری دینامیک موضعی جابجایی زاویه ای مفاصل اندام تحتانی مردان جوان سالم فعال در حین رکاب زدن  با استفاده از روشهای نوین تحلیل غیر خطی بود. مواد و روش­ها
تعداد 15 دانشجوی پسر تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی از دانشگاه خوارزمی به صورت داوطلبانه در این مطالعه شرکت کردند. آزمودنیها در طی دو روز با اختلاف 48 ساعت در هر مراجعه به آزمایشگاه مراجعه کردند و در حالتهای بدون کشش و پس از گذشت 2، 5 و 10 دقیقه از کشش استاتیک و دینامیک اطلاعات کینماتیکی اندام تحتانی آنها در 30 سیکل رکاب زدن دوچرخه ثابت در شدت کار 70 دور بر دقیقه توسط دوربین تحلیل حرکت با فرکانس 50 هرتز ثبت شد. اطلاعات جابجایی زاویه­ای مفاصل ران، زانو و مچ پا برای ساختن سری زمانی و محاسبه نمای لیاپانوف استخراج شدند.
یافته‌ها
نتایج آزمون تحلیل واریانس با اندازه گیری تکراری نشان داد که تفاوت معنی داری در نمای لیاپانوف جابجایی زاویه ای مفاصل ران، زانو و مچ پا در وهله های 2، 5 و 10 دقیقه بعد از کشش استاتیک و دینامیک وجود ندارد (05/0<P).
نتیجه‌گیری
با توجه به نتایج احتمالا می توان از هر دو نوع کشش استاتیک و دینامیک در برنامه گرم کردن پیش از رکاب زدن روی دوچرخه ثابت به منظور تمرین یا انجام بازتوانی استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Local Dynamic Stability of Lower Extremity Joints’ Angular Displacement in Active Males during Cycling

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Abbasi 1
  • Heydar Sadeghi 2
  • Mehdi Zamanian 3
1 Assistant Professor, Sport Biomechanics Department, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Full Professor, Sport Biomechanics Department, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant professor, Faculty of engineering, Kharazmi University, Kharazmi University, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: The previous studies on the effect of statics and dynamics stretching on forthcoming performance have reported various results. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of static and dynamic stretching types of muscles on local dynamic stability in angular displacement of the lower extremity joints in active males during cycling using innovative nonlinear analysis methods.
Materials and Methods: A total of 15 male university students of physical education and sport sciences at Kharazmi University voluntarily participated in the current study. Participants referred to the laboratory twice on two days seperated by a 48-hour interval, and the lower extremity kinematics data was collected from 30 pedaling cycles on the stationary cycle in 70 RPM in conditions of of without stretching, and 2, 5, and 10 minutes after stretching by means of motion analysis camera in 50 Hz frequency. The angular displacement of hip, knee, and ankle joints were extracted by constructing time series and Lyapunov Exponent (LyE) calculation.
Results: The results of repeated measure ANOVA did not show any significant differences in angular displacement LyE in hip, knee, and ankle joints 2, 5, and 10 minutes post stretching (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Considering the results, both static and dynamic stretching types can be used in warm up programs before pedaling on stationary cycle for the pruposes of training or rehabilitation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Static stretching
  • Dynamic stretching
  • local dynamic stability
  • Lyapunov exponent
  • cycling
  1. Smith CA. The warm-up procedure: to stretch or not to stretch. A brief review. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 1994;19(1):12-7.##
  2. High DM, Howley E, Franks B. The effects of static stretching and warm-up on prevention of delayed-onset muscle soreness. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1989;60(4):357-61.##
  3. Young WB. The use of static stretching in warm-up for training and competition. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2007;2(2):212.##
  4. Young WB, Behm DG. Should static stretching be used during a warm-up for strength and power activities? Strength and Conditioning Journal. 2002;24(6):33-7.##
  5. Gleim GW, McHugh MP. Flexibility and its effects on sports injury and performance. Sports Medicine (Auckland, NZ). 1997;24(5):289-99.##
  6. Herbert RD, Gabriel M. Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: systematic review. British Medical Journal. 2002;325(7362):468-72.##
  7. Avela J, Kyrolainen H, Komi PV. Altered reflex sensitivity after repeated and prolonged passive muscle stretching. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1999;86(4):1283-91.##
  8. Avela J, Finni T, Liikavainio T, Niemela E, Komi PV. Neural and mechanical responses of the triceps surae muscle group after 1 h of repeated fast passive stretches. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004;96(6):2325-32.##
  9. Behm DG, Button DC, Butt JC. Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. 2001;26(3):261-72.##

10. Costa PB, Ryan ED, Herda TJ, DeFreitas JM, Beck TW, Cramer JT. Effects of stretching on peak torque and the H:Q ratio. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2009;30(1):60-5.##

11. Nelson AG, Driscoll NM, Landin DK, Young MA, Schexnayder IC. Acute effects of passive muscle stretching on sprint performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2005;23(5):449-54.##

12. Yamaguchi T, Ishii K. Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2005;19(3):677-83.##

13. Herda TJ, Cramer JT, Ryan ED, McHugh MP, Stout JR. Acute effects of static versus dynamic stretching on isometric peak torque, electromyography, and mechanomyography of the biceps femoris muscle. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2008;22(3):809-17.##

14. Hough PA, Ross EZ, Howatson G. Effects of dynamic and static stretching on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2009;23(2):507-12.##

15. Torres EM, Kraemer WJ, Vingren JL, Volek JS, Hatfield DL, Spiering BA, et al. Effects of stretching on upper-body muscular performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2008;22(4):1279-85.##

16. Hough PA, Ross EZ, Howatson G. Effects of dynamic and static stretching on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2009;23(2):507.##

17. Duncan MJ, Woodfield LA. Acute effects of warm up protocol on flexibility and vertical jump in children. Journal of Exercise Physiology online. 2006;9(3):9-16.##

18. Clevidence MW. The Acute Effects of Differing Conditioning Loads on Counter-Movement Jump Performance in the Recreational Athlete: Master Thesis, Ohio University; 2008.##

19. Fleming BC, Beynnon BD, Renstrom PA, Peura GD, Nichols CE, Johnson RJ. The strain behavior of the anterior cruciate ligament during bicycling An in vivo study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1998;26(1):109-18.##

20. Nelson AG, Kokkonen J, Eldredge C. Strength inhibition following an acute stretch is not limited to novice stretchers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2005;76(4):500-6.##

21. Asplund C, St Pierre P. Knee pain and bicycling. The Physician and Sports Medicine. 2004;32(4):1-12.##

22. Dingwell JB, Cusumano JP. Nonlinear time series analysis of normal and pathological human walking. Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science. 2000;10(4):848-63.##

23. Stergiou N. Innovative Analyses of Human Movement: Human Kinetics Publishers; 2004.##

24. Yamaguchi T, Ishii K, Yamanaka M, Yasuda K. Acute effect of static stretching on power output during concentric dynamic constant external resistance leg extension. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2006;20(4):804-10.##

25. Nayfeh AH, Balachandran B. Applied nonlinear dynamics: analytical, computational and experimental methods: John Wiley & Sons; 2008.##

26. Rodacki ALF, Souza RM, Ugrinowitsch C, Cristopoliski F, Fowler NE. Transient effects of stretching exercises on gait parameters of elderly women. Manual Therapy. 2009;14(2):167-72.##

27. Amiri-Khorasani M, MohammadKazemi R, Sarafrazi S, Riyahi-Malayeri S, Sotoodeh V. Kinematics Analyses Related to Stretch-Shortening Cycle during Soccer Instep Kicking After Different Acute Stretching. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2012;26(11):3010-7.##

28. Rubini EC, Costa AL, Gomes PS. The effects of stretching on strength performance. Sports Medicine. 2007;37(3):213-24.##

29. Herbert RD, Gabriel M. Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: systematic review. BMJ: British Medical Journal. 2002;325(7362):468.##

30. Behm DG, Chaouachi A. A review of the acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2011;111(11):2633-51.##

31. McHugh MP, Cosgrave C. To stretch or not to stretch: the role of stretching in injury prevention and performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2010;20(2):169-81.##

32. Full RJ, Kubow T, Schmitt J, Holmes P, Koditschek D. Quantifying dynamic stability and maneuverability in legged locomotion. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 2002;42(1):149-57.##

33. Cramer J, Housh T, Weir J, Johnson G, Coburn J, Beck T. The acute effects of static stretching on peak torque, mean power output, electromyography, and mechanomyography. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2005;93(5):530-9.##

34. Kokkonen J, Nelson AG, Cornwell A. Acute muscle stretching inhibits maximal strength performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1998;69(4):411-5.##

35. Nelson AG, Driscoll NM, Landin DK, Young MA, Schexnayder IC. Acute effects of passive muscle stretching on sprint performance. Journal of sports sciences. 2005;23(5):449-54.##

36. Sekir U, Arabaci R, Akova B, Kadagan S. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on leg flexor and extensor isokinetic strength in elite women athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2010;20(2):268-81.##

37. McHugh MP, Nesse M. Effect of stretching on strength loss and pain after eccentric exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2008;40(3):566-73.##

38. Magnusson S, Simonsen E, Aagaard P, Gleim G, McHugh M, Kjaer M. Viscoelastic response to repeated static stretching in the human hamstring muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 1995;5(6):342-7.##

39. Magnusson SP, Simonsen EB, Aagaard P, Kjaer M. Biomechanical responses to repeated stretches in human hamstring muscle in vivo. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1996;24(5):622-8.##

40. Ryan ED, Beck TW, Herda TJ, Hull HR, Hartman MJ, Costa PB, et al. The time course of musculotendinous stiffness responses following different durations of passive stretching. journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2008;38(10):632-9.##