تقارن در راه رفتن و روش های ارزیابی آن: مطالعه مروری

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد تمام بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار فیزیوتراپی، گروه ارگونومی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

4 استاد تمام گروه فیزیوتراپی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
به دلیل اینکه راه رفتن اصلی‌ترین عمل انسان برای جابجایی است، درک پیچیدگی‌ها و زوایای مختلف آن همواره مورد توجه بوده است. یکی از مسائل مورد توجه در این زمینه بحث تقارن راه رفتن است. بر این اساس هدف از مطالعه مروری حاضر بررسی مفهوم تقارن در راه رفتن و روش­های ارزیابی آن بوده است.
مواد و روش­ها
با جستجوی مقالاتی که از سال 2000 تا 2015 در زمینه تقارن راه رفتن در بانک­های اطلاعاتی معتبر منتشر شده بود، بر اساس معیارهای تحقیق تعداد 71 به عنوان مقالات نهایی برای مطالعه مروری حاضر انتخاب شدند.
یافته­ها
مروری بر مطالعات انجام گرفته نشان می‌دهد که در حالت کلی راه رفتن در افراد سالم و دارای ناهنجاری­های مختلف از دیدگاه کینماتیکی و کینتیکی نامتقارن است و این مساله به جز مطالعاتی محدود در مورد تمامی پارامترهای کینماتیکی و کینتیکی اندازه­گیری شده برقرار است. همچنین در حالت کلی می­توان روش­های ارزیابی تقارن راه رفتن را به شاخص­های تقارنی و روش‌های آماری تقسیم­بندی کرد. در این شرایط شاخص­های تقارنی علی­رغم سادگی بکارگیری، به دلیل اندازه‌گیری‌های تک­متغیری نمی‌توانند به خوبی نمایانگر پیچیدگی فضایی-زمانی چرخه راه رفتن باشند. همچنین محدودیت اصلی استفاده از روش‌های آماری ناتوانی در ارائه یک مقدار کمّی است. در این شرایط برای هر دوی این روش‌ها داده­های نرمال و هنجار در دسترس نیست.
نتیجه­گیری
با توجه به نامتقارن بودن رفتار اندام­های تحتانی هنگام راه رفتن در افراد سالم که بیشتر به دلیل تفاوت وظایف عملکردی آنها در زمینه پیشروی و کنترل بروز می‌کند، فرض دستیابی به تقارن کامل پس از توانبخشی و مداخله صحیح به نظر نمی‌رسد. در این حالت انجام مطالعات تکمیلی به منظور دستیابی به دامنه طبیعی عدم تقارن راه رفتن برای آزمودنی‌های مختلف و علل بنیادی تأثیرگذار بر تقارن راه رفتن ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Gait Symmetry and Its Evaluation Methods: A Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Nasirzadeh 1
  • Heydar Sadeghi 2
  • Hamid Reza Mokhtarinia 3
  • Abbas Rahimi 4
1 PhD Candidate in Sports Biomechanics, Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor of Sports Biomechanics, Faculty of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Physiotherapy, Department of Ergonomics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, Iran
4 Professor of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and aim: Due to the fact that walking is the main activity of humans to relocate, understanding its complexity and its different angles has long been the focus of various studies. One of the main issues in this regard is gait symmetry. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was investigating the concept of gait symmetry and the methods for evaluating it.
Materials and Methods: A search among the related articles published from 2000 to 2015 in valid scientific databases, according to the research criteria, resulted in 71 scientific articles selected for the present review study.
Results: Review of the previous studies showed that generally, from kinematical and kinetical point of view, walking in participants with and without abnormalities was asymmetrical and this condition is represented in all measured kinematic and kinetic parameters except in a few studies. Also, the methods of evaluating gait symmetry could generally be categorized into symmetry indices and statistical methods. In this situation, symmetry indices, despite their ease of application, could not represent the spatial-time complexity of walking cycle because of single-variable evaluations. In addition, the main limitation of statistical methods is that they do not present a qualitative value. Thus, for neither of these two methods is normal data available.
Conclusion: With respect to the fact that during walking lower limbs have an asymmetrical behavior in normal/healthy individuals, which is due to their different functional tasks in control and propulsion, the assumption of gaining perfect symmetry after rehabilitation and intervention does not seems to be true. However, it is crucial to carry out further investigations in order to obtain the normal range of gait asymmetry in different participants and to understand fundamental factors affecting gait asymmetry.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gait symmetry
  • symmetry index
  • Kinematic
  • Kinetic
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