مقایسه الگوهای عملکرد حرکتی کودکان اوتیسم با عملکرد بالا با همتایان عادی 12 - 7 سال

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دفتر تحقیقات و فن آوری دانشجویان، دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشدکاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه کاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهیدبهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 عضو کادر آموزشی گروه کاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار، دکترای آمار زیستی، گروه آمار، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2016.1100322

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
 هدف این مطالعه مقایسه الگوهای عملکرد حرکتی در کودکان اوتیسم با عملکرد بالا با کودکان عادی بود.
مواد و روش­ها
این پژوهش یک مطالعه مقایسه­ای و از نوع مورد- شاهدی است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل کلیه کودکان 7 تا 12 ساله مدرسه اوتیسم پیک هنر و کودکان عادی از مدارس ابتدایی استان تهران در سال  1393 می­باشد. آزمودنی­های پژوهش شامل 36 کودک 12- 7 ساله گرفتار به اوتیسم با عملکرد بالا از مدرسه پیک هنر بودند که به روش نمونه گیری دردسترس انتخاب شدند. و 36 نفر از کودکان عادی که به شیوه همگن انتخاب شدند. برای جمع­آوری داده­ها از پرسشنامه‌های کارز و آزمون تبحر حرکتی برونینکس- اوزرتسکی استفاده شد.
یافته­ها
 نتایج تحلیل واریانس چند متغیری مانوا نشان داد که بین دو گروه از کودکان در الگوهای عملکرد حرکتی تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد (01/0>P). می­توان نتیجه گرفت که کودکان عادی نرخ بالاتری از الگوهای عملکرد حرکتی را دارند.
نتیجه­گیری
 این نتیجه اشارات مهمی در زمینه آموزش و افزایش بهداشت روانی کودکان در بر دارد. از سوی دیگر الگوهای عملکرد حرکتی به عنوان یک عامل کلیدی در موفقیت کودکان نقش دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison patterns of motor function in high function autistic children and normal 7 - 12 years

نویسندگان [English]

  • Minaz Eslamdoost Nafuti 1
  • Mehdi Rezaee 2
  • Zahra PashazadehAzari 3
  • Alireza Akbarzadeh-Baghban 4
1 1. Students Research Office, MSc Student of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Associate Professor, PhD in Biostatistics, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: The purpose of the present comparative case-control study was to compare patterns of motor function in normal and high function autistic children. The population comprised of all 7-12 year-old high function autistic children in Aieen-e Mehrvarzi School and the normal children in Grade School in Tehran in 1393.
Materials and method: Participants included 36 high function autistic children, 7-12 year-old, in Peyk-e Honar School selected based on available sampling. Also, 36 normal children were selected using matching method. To collect data, the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale and Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency were used.
Results: The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference between the two groups of children in patterns of motor function (P<0.01)
 Conclusion: The present study presented significant results in educating autistic children in the field of movement exercises with the aim of motor skills and mental health improvement. In addition, motor function patterns were shown to play an important role in the success of these children.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Autism
  • High function autism
  • motor function
  1. Autism Society (2005) Facts and statistics.##
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) Data and statistics on autism spectrum disorders.##
  3. American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th edn). American Psychiatric Publishing Inc, Washington DC, USA##
  4. National Research Council (2001) Educating Children with Autism. Washington DC: National Academy Press##
  5. Coury D. Medical treatment of autism spectrum disorders. Current opinion in neurology. 2010;23(2):131-6.##
  6. Bhat AN, Landa RJ, Galloway JC (2011) Current perspectives on motor functioning in infants, children, and adults with autism spectrum disorder. J Am Phys Ther Assoc 91: 1-14.##
  7. National Research Council (2001) Educating Children with Autism. Washington DC: National Academy Press.##
  8. Ghaziuddin M, Butler E. Clumsiness in autism and Asperger syndrome: a further report. J Intellect Disabil Res.1998;42 (pt 1):43– 48.##
  9. Szatmari P, Tuff L, Finlayson MA, et al. Asperger’s syndrome and autism: differences in behavior, cognition, and adaptive functioning. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1990;29:130–136.##
  10. Teitelbaum, O., Benton, T., Shah, P. K., Prince, A., Kelly, J. L., & Teitelbaum, P. (2004). Eshkol-Wachman movement notation in diagnosis: the early detection of Asperger’s syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 11909–11914.##
  11. Leary, M. R., & Hill, D. A. (1996). Moving on: autism and movement disturbance. Mental Retardation, 34, 39–53.##
  12. Mari, M., Castiello, U., Marks, D., Marraffa, C., & Prior, M. (2003). The reach-to-grasp movement in children with autism spectrum disorder. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 358, 393–403.##
  13. Baranek, G. T. (2002). Efficacy of sensory and motor interventions for children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 397–422.##
  14. Clark JE, Metcalfe JS (2002) The mountain of motor development: A metaphor. In: Clark JE, Humphrey JH (Eds). Motor Development: Research and Review. NASPE Publications, Reston, VA.##
  15. Robinson LE, Goodway JD (2009) Instructional climates in preschool children who are at risk, part II: Perceived physical competence. Res Q Exercise Sport 80: 543-551.##
  16. Liu T (2012) Motor milestone development in young children with autism spectrum disorders: An exploratory study. Edu Psych Prac 28: 315-326.##
  17. Haywood KM, Getchell N (2009) Lifespan Motor Development. (5th edn) Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL##
  18. Stodden DF, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ, Robert MA, Rudisill ME, et al. (2008) A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest 60: 290-306.##
  19. Coury D. Medical treatment of autism spectrum disorders. Current opinion in neurology. 2010;23(2):131-6.##
  20. Happé F, Frith U. The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2006;36(1):5-25.##
  21. Mandell DS, Wiggins LD, Carpenter LA, Daniels J, DiGuiseppi C, Durkin MS, et al. Racial/ethnic disparities in the identification of children with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Public Health. 2009;99(3):493-8.##
  22. Gupta A, Singhal N. Psychosocial support for families of children with autism. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal. 2005;16(2):62-83##
  23. National Research Council (2001) Educating Children with Autism. Washington DC: National Academy Press
  24. Staples K, Reid G (2010) Fundamental movement skills and autism spectrum disorders. J Autism DevDisord 40: 209-217.##
  25. Hwang B, Hughes C. The effects of social interactive training on early social communicative skills of children with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2000;30(4):331-43##
  26. Lloyd M, MacDonald M, Lord C. Motor skills of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Autism. 2013;17(2):133-46.##
  27. Corsello CM (2005) Early intervention in autism. Infant Young Child 18: 74-85.##
  28. Mulligan S, White BP (2012) Sensory and motor behaviors of infant siblings of children with and without autism. Am J Occup Ther 66: 556-566.##
  29. Baron-Cohen S, Hammer J.Is autism an extremform of the 'male brain'? Adv Infancy Res 1997;11:193-217##
  30. Ghaziuddin M,Butler E, Tsai L,Ghaziuddin N.Is clumsiness a marker for asperger syndrome? JIntellect Disabil Res 1994;38(PT 5):519-27##
  31. Ahmadi SJ, Safari T, Hematiyan M, Khalili Z. Indices of psychometric tests to diagnose autism. New Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Science [Persian], 2012; 1(1): 87-104.[In Persian]##
  32. Corsello CM (2005) Early intervention in autism. Infant Young Child 18: 74-85.##
  33. Hill EL (2010) The importance of motor skill in general development. Dev Med Child Neurol 52: 888##
  34. Vasileva N (2012) Diagnosis and therapy of motor disturbances in children with autism. J Spec Edu and Reh 13: 55-68.##
  35. Manjiviona J, Prior M. Comparison of Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autistic children on a test of motor impairment. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 1995;25(1):23-39##
  36. Inasaridze K, Bzhalava V. Dual-task Coordination in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). arXiv preprint arXiv:11011858. 2011.##
  37. Baron-Cohen S, Scott FJ,Carrie Allison C, Wlliams J, Bolton P, Matthews FE, Brayne C.Prevalenc autism spectrum conditions: cudy.: UKschool-based population study. Br J psychiatry2009;194(6): 500-9##
  38. Kaitlin M Heywood. Growth and Development. ##
  39. Barkeley, St. Zittel, LV. Nicholas SE. (2001). "Locomotor and object control skills of children diagnosed with autism, adapted physical activity quarterly." 18 (4).PP: 405-416.##
  40. Pan CY, Tsai, CL. Chu CH. (2009). "Fundamental movement skills in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". J Austim Dev Disord. 39(12): PP:1694-1705.##
  41. Green D, Charman, T. Pickle, A. Chandler, S. Loucas, T. Frcpsych, ES. Frcpch, G. (2009). "Impairment in movement skills of children with autistic spectrum disorders". Development medicine and child neurology. 51(4): PP:311-316##
  42. Lang, R. Koegel, IK. Ashbaugh, K. Regester, A. Ence, W. Smith, W. (2010). "Physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review". Research in Austin spectrum disorders. 1 (3):PP: 1202-1215.##
  43. Staples, Kl. Reid, G. (2010). "Fundamental movement skills and autism specterum disorders". Autism Dev Disorder. 40(3): PP:209-217.##
  44. Sharifidaramadi P. Ability of motor skills. 2nd ed. Tehran:Sadoogh Press 1998; p: 20-65.##
  45. Visscher C, Houwen S, Scherder EJ, Moolenaar B, Hartman E. Motor profile of children with developmental speech and language disorders. Pediatrics 2007; 120: 158-63.##
  46. Jepsen RH, Von Thaden K. The effect of cognitive education on the performance of students with neurological developmental disabilities. Neurorehabilitation 2002; 17: 201-9.##
  47. Sansosti FJ. Using video modeled social stories to increase the social communication skills of children with high functioning autism/asperger’s syndrome. Ph.D. Dissertation. USA, South Florida: Education University, College of psychological and social foundations, 2005: 12##
  48. Weaver C. Characterization of autism spectrum disorders in children’s picture books. M.Sc. Dissertation. Brigham Young University, College of psychology, 2008: 27.##
  49. Dewey D, Cantell M, Crawford SG. Motor and gestural performance in children with autism spectrum disorders, developmental coordination disorder, and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Inter Neuropsychol Soc 2007; 13: 246-56.##
  50. Dewey D, Cantell M, Crawford SG. Motor and gestural performance in children with autism spectrum disorders, developmental coordination disorder, and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Inter Neuropsychol Soc 2007; 13: 246-56.##