مقایسه تاثیر خستگی عضلانی بر عملکرد حس عمقی گردن کاراته کارای حرفه ای و غیرورزشکاران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری آسیب شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر، کرمان، ایران

2 استاد گروه آسیب شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر، کرمان، ایران

3 استادیار گروه بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
ضعف عملکرد حس عمقی گردن یک عامل خطر برای آسیب­های ناحیه سر و گردن ورزشکاران محسوب می­شود. اختلال عملکرد حس عمقی با عواملی همچون خستگی عضلانی که جزء لاینفک هر فعالیت بدنی است، ارتباط دارد. از این رو تحقیق حاضر قصد بررسی تاثیر خستگی عضلات گردن بر حس عمقی آن در کاراته­کاران حرفه ای در مقایسه با افراد غیرورزشکار را دارد.
مواد و روش­ها
نمونه­های تحقیق حاضر متشکل از 16 ورزشکار حرفه ای مرد کاراته با میانگین سن (73/2±00/21) سال، قد (05/0±78/1) سانتی­متر و وزن (32/11±38/71) کیلوگرم و 16 نفر مرد غیرورزشکار با میانگین سن (87/1±81/20) سال، قد (04/0±75/1) سانتی­متر و وزن (24/12±00/70) کیلوگرم می­باشد. جهت اعمال خستگی از حرکت شانه بالا انداختن با دمبل (30% یک تکرار بیشینه) استفاده شد. قبل و بعد از اعمال پروتکل خستگی عضلانی ایزوتونیک، از آزمون بازسازی سری گردنی با اندازه­گیری خطای بازسازی زاویه در دو حرکت اکستنشن و چرخش جهت سنجش توانایی حس عمقی گردن استفاده شد.
نتایج
به لحاظعملکرد حس عمقی گردن قبل و بعد از اعمال خستگی عضلانی، در هیچ یک از گروه­ها، تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نشد. بین عملکرد حس عمقی گردن ورزشکاران و غیرورزشکاران در اجرای آزمون توسط حرکت اکستنشن تفاوت معنادار مشاهده شد (05/0>P). در مجموع، ورزشکاران حرفه ای عملکرد حس عمقی ضعیفتری را نسبت به گروه غیرورزشکاران نشان دادند.
نتیجه­ گیری
گرچه خستگی عضلات گردن تاثیری بر عملکرد حس عمقی گردن نداشت، احتمالا تاثیر تدریجی گیرنده­های حس عمقی گردن از ضربات وارده و تکرار حرکات شتابی ناحیه سر و گردن در ورزشکاران کاراته موجب ضعف عملکرد حس عمقی ناحیه گردن این افراد، در جهات خاص حرکتی، در مقایسه با غیرورزشکاران شده است. بنابراین نیاز به افزایش عملکرد حس عمقی گردن در ورزشکاران کاراته از طریق اجرای تمرینات اختصاصی حس عمقی احساس می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the Effects of Muscular Fatigue on Neck Proprioception Performance between Professional Karate Athletes and Non-Athletes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nadjmeh Afhami 1
  • Mansour Sahebozamani 2
  • Fariborz Mohamadi por 3
1 PhD student in Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Department of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
2 Professor of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Department of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Sports Biomechanics, Department of Sports Biomechanics, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: The poor performance of neck proprioception is a risk factor for athlete’s head and neck injury. Muscle fatigue, as an inevitable factor of any physical activity, can cause disorder in proprioception performance. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of cervical muscular fatigue on neck proprioception performance in karate athletes in comparison to non-athletes.
Materials and Methods: A total of 16 professional karate athletes (mean age ± SD; 21.00 ± 2.73 years, mean height ± SD; 1.78 ± 0.05 cm, and mean weight ± SD; 71.38 ± 11.32 kg) and 16 non-athletes (mean age ± SD; 20.81 ± 1.87 years, mean height ± SD; 1.75 ± 0.04 cm, and mean weight ± SD; 70.00 ± 12.24 kg) participated in the study. Participants performed dumbbell shrug shoulder (with 30% 1RM) for fatigue protocol. Cervicocephalic relocation test was used measuring angle repositioning error during active cervical extension and rotation movements to assess neck proprioception ability, before and after isotonic muscular fatigue.
Results: No significant difference was observed in neck position sense before and after neck muscles fatigue in the two groups. However, a significant difference was found in neck proprioception performance between karate athletes and non-athletes following extension (P<0/05). In general, athletes had greater joint position errors compared with non-athletes.
Conclusion: Although muscular fatigue did not affect proprioceptive neck performance, probably the effects of degenerative changes in neck proprioception and the acceleration repeated movements in karate athletes have weakened their neck proprioception function in some direction in comparison to non-athletes. Therefore, it is important to improve the performance of neck proprioception in karate athletes through special neck proprioception trainings.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Karate
  • Proprioception
  • Muscle Fatigue
1. Riemann B and Lephart S. The Sensorimotor System, part I: The physiologic basis of functional joint stability. J Athl Train 2002; 37(1): 71-79.##

2. Rothwell J. Control of human voluntary movement. London: Chapman and Hall1994.P.86. ##
3. Proske U and Gandevia SC. The proprioceptive senses: their roles in signaling body shape, body position and movement, and muscle force. Physiol Rev 2012; 92(4):1651-1697. ##

4. Kuramochi RKimura TNakazawa KAkai MTorii S and Suzuki S. Anticipatory modulation of neck muscle reflex responses induced by mechanical perturbations of the human forehead. Neurosci Lett 2004; 366(2):206-210. ##

5. Arami J, Rezasoltani A, Khalkhali Zaavieh M and Rahnama L. The effect of two exercise therapy programs (proprioceptive and endurance training) to treat patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. J Babol Univ Med Sci 2012; 14(1):77-84 [In Persian]. ##

6. Sajjadi E, Olyaei GR, Talebian S, Hadian MR, Jalaei S, Mahmoudi R and Amini E. The effect of muscular fatigue on cervical joint position sense in young and healthy men and women: A preliminary study 2014; 8(1):43-50[In Persian]. ## 

7. Otte A. Whiplash injury: New Approaches of Functional Neuroimaging. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012; P.3. ##

8. Heikkila HVWenngren BI. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility, active range of cervical motion, and oculomotor function in patients with whiplash injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil1998; 79(9):1089-1094. ##

9. Treleaven JJull GSterling M. Dizziness and unsteadiness following whiplash injury: characteristic features and relationship with cervical joint position error. J Rehabil Med2003; 35(1):36-43. ##

10. Armstrong BSMcNair PJWilliams M. Head and neck position sense in whiplash patients and healthy individuals and the effect of the cranio-cervical flexion action. Clin Biomech2005; 20(7):675-684. ##

11. Sterling MJull GVicenzino BKenardy J. Characterization of acute whiplash-associated disorders. Spine 2004; 29(2):182-188. ##

12. Pinsault N and Vuillerme N. Degradation of cervical joint position sense following muscular fatigue in humans. Spine 2011; 35(3):294-297. ##

13. Hassanlouei H, Falla D, Arendt-Nielsen L and Kersting UG. The effect of six weeks endurance training on dynamic muscular control of the knee following fatiguing exercise. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2014; 24(5):682-688. ##

14. Han J, Waddington G, Adams R, Anson J and Liu Y. Assessing proprioception: A critical review of methods. J of Sport and Health Science 2015; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j/jshs.2014.10.004: 1-11. ##

15. Lin CH, Lien YH, Wang SF and Tsauo JY. Hip and knee proprioception in elite, amateur and novice tennis players. Am J Phys Med Rehabilitation 2006; 85: 2016-2021. ##

16. Muaidi QI, Nicholson LL and Refshauge KM. Do elite athletes exhibit enhanced proprioceptive acuity, range and strength of knee rotation compared with non-athletes? Scand J Med Sci Sports 2009; 19:103-12. ##

17. Lephart SM, Myers JB, Bradley JP and Fu FH. Shoulder proprioception and function following thermal capsulorraphy. Arthroscopy 2002; 18:770-778. ##

18. Han J, Anson J, Waddington G and Adams R. Sport attainment and proprioception. Int J Sports Sci Coach 2014; 9:159-170. ##
19. Han J, Waddington G, Anson J and Adams R. Level of competitive success achieved by elite athletes and multi-joint proprioceptive ability. J Sci Med Sport 2015; 18:77-81. ##

20. Muinos M and Ballesteros S. Peripheral vision and perceptual asymmetries in young and older martial arts athletes and non-athletes. Atten Percept Psychophys 2014; 76:2465–2476. ##

21. Arriaza R and Leyes M. Injury profile in competitive karate: prospective analysis of three consecutive
World Karate Championships. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2005; 13: 603–607. ##

22. Pieter W. Competition injury rates in young karate athletes. Science and Sports 2010; 25(1): 32-38. ##

23. Destombe C, Lejeune L, Guillodo Y, Roudaut A, Jousse S, Devauchelle V, Saraux A. Incidence and nature of karate injuries. Joint Bone Spine 2006; 73(2):182-188. ##

24. Stapley PJ, Beretta MV, Dalla Toffola E, Schieppati M. Neck muscle fatigue and postural control in patients with whiplash injury. Clin Neurophysiol 2006; 117(3):610-622. ##

25. Guskiewicz KM, McCrea M, Marshall SW, Cantu RCRandolph CBarr WOnate JAKelly JP. Cumulative effects associated with recurrent concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA Concussion Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 290(19):2549-2555. ##

26. Chen X and Treleaven J. The effect of neck torsion on joint position error in subjects with chronic neck pain. Manual Therapy 2013. 1-6. ##

27. Treleaven J. Sensorimotor disturbances in neck disorders affecting postural stability, head and eye movement control. Manual Therapy 2008; 13:2-11. ##

28. Artz N.J, Adams M.A and Dolan P. Sensorimotor function of the cervical spine in healthy volunteers. Clinical Biomechanics 2015; 30:260-268. ##

29. Roren A, Mayoux-Benhamou M.A, Fayad F, Poiraudeau S, Lantz D and Revel M. Comparison of visual and ultrasound based techniques to measure head repositioning in healthy and neck-pain subjects. Manual Therapy 2009; 14: 270-277. ##

30. Bavli O. Comparison the effect of water plyometrics and land plyometrics on body mass index and biomotorical variables of adolescent basketball players. International Journal of Sport and exercise science 2012; 4(1): 11-14. ##

31. Vuillerme N, Pinsault N, Vaillant J. Postural control during quiet standing following cervical muscular fatigue: effects of changes in sensory inputs. Neurosci Lett 2005; 378:135-9. ##

32. Asmussen E. Muscle fatigue. Medicine and science in sports 1979; 11:313–321. ##

33. Amonoo-Kuofi HS. The density of muscle spindles in the medial, intermediate and lateral columns of human intrinsic postvertebral muscles. J Anat 1983; 136 (3): 509-519. ##

34. Melvill-Jones G. Posture. Principles of neural science. 4th ed. New York: Mc Graw-Hill 2000; 816-831##

35. Peterson BW, Goldberg J, Bilotto G, et al. Cervicocollic reflex: its dynamic properties and interaction with vestibular reflexes. J Neurophysiol 1985; 54 (1): 90-109. ##

36. Sterner R, Pincivero D and Lephart S. The effects of muscular fatigue on shoulder proprioception. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine 2008, 8: 96-101. ##

37. Miura Y, Ishibashi E, Tsuda Y, Okamura H, Otsuka and Toh S. The effect of local and general fatigue on knee proprioception.The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 2004, 4: 414-418. ##

38. Rix GD and Bagust J. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in patients with chronic, nontraumatic cervical spine pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 911-919. ##

39. Kaplan FS, Nixon JE, Reitz M, et al. Age-related changes in proprioception and sensation of joint position. Acta Orthop Scand 1985; 56: 72-74. ##

40. Aydin T, Yildiz Y, Yildiz C, Atesalp S and Kalyon TA. Proprioception of the Ankle: A Comparison between Female Teenaged Gymnasts and Controls. Foot & Ankle International 2002; 23(2):123-129. ##

41. Ashton-Miller JA, Wojtys EM, Huston LJ and Fry-Welch D. Can Proprioception Really Be Improved by Exercises? Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy 2001; 9(3):128-136. ##

42. Kochhar T, Back DL, Mann B, Skinner J. Risk of cervical injuries in mixed martial arts. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39:444-447##

43. Proctor MR, Cantu RC. Head and neck injuries in young athletes. Clin Sports Med. 2000; 19(4):693-715. ##

44. McIntosh AS and McCrory P. Preventing head and neck injury. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 314-318. ##

45. Armstrong B, Mcnair P and Taylor D. Head and neck position sense. Sports med 2008; 38(2):101-117. ##