مقایسه اثر ریکاوری فعال در خشکی، آب سرد و گرم بر فاکتورهای حیاتی و درک کوفتگی متعاقب تمرینات مقاومتی در دو محیط متفاوت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی اذربایجان، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناس ارشد، گروه علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی اذربایجان، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
ریکاوری با آب ممکن است بر بهبود درک کوفتگی و فاکتورهای حیاتی ورزشکاران موثر باشد. هدف از تحقیق حاضر مقایسه اثر ریکاوری فعال در خشکی، آب سرد و گرم بر فاکتورهای حیاتی و درک کوفتگی متعاقب فعالیت مقاومتی در دو محیط متفاوت می­باشد.
مواد و روش­ها
36 زن دانشجو به‌صورت تصادفی در 3 گروه 12 نفره کنترل، ریکاوری با آب سرد و آب گرم تقسیم شدند. گروه‌های تجربی بعد از یک هفته فعالیت مقاومتی در محیط گرم (35 تا 40 درجه سانتی­گراد و رطوبت2±75%) و ریکاوری در آب سرد (10 تا 12 درجه سانتی­گراد) و گرم (40 درجه سانتی گراد)، هفته دوم را استراحت و در هفته سوم نیز در محیط سرد (5تا 10 درجه سانتی گراد و رطوبت2±60%) تمرین و ریکاوری با آب سرد و گرم نمودند. گروه کنترل نیز یک هفته فعالیت مقاومتی در محیطی با دمای خنثی (2±26 درجه سانتی گراد و رطوبت 2±43%)، ریکاوری فعال در خشکی را انجام داد. درک کوفتگی، درجه حرارت، فشارخون و ضربان قلب در مراحل مختلف مورد ارزیآبی قرار گرفت.
یافته­ها
نتایج نشان داد که بین ریکاوری فعال در آب سرد و گرم بر درک کوفتگی و فاکتورهای حیاتی پس از اجرای فعالیت مقاومتی در محیطهای استرس­زای سرمایی و گرمایی اختلاف معناداری وجود دارد (05/0P≤). ریکاوری فعال در آب سرد موجب کاهش بیشتری در میزان درک کوفتگی در مدت زمان­های 24 و 48 ساعت بعد از تمرین در محیط سرد و فشارخون و ضربان قلب در 2 ساعت پس از تمرین در محیط های گرم و سرد می‌شود.
نتیجه­ گیری
به نظر می‌رسد برای ریکاوری سریع فاکتورهای حیاتی و درک کوفتگی بعد فعالیت مقاومتی در محیط با دماهای غیرطبیعی، بهتر است از ریکاوری فعال در آب سرد استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison between the Effects of Active Recovery in Hot and Cold Water on Muscle Soreness and the Cardiac Response after Resistance Training in Hot and Cold Environments

نویسندگان [English]

  • Karim Salehzadeh 1
  • Narjes Sedighie 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
2 MS. Student of Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz. Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Recovery may alleviate athletes’ muscle soreness and the vital factors. The present study aimed to compare the effects of active recovery without water along with hot and cold water on vital factors and muscle soreness after resistance training in two different environments.
Materials and Methods: A total of 36 female students were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, recovery with cold water, and recovery with hot water, with 12 participants in each group. The experimental groups performed a week of resistance training in hot environment (35 to 40° c, 75± 2% humidity) and recovery in cold (10 to 12° c) and warm (40° c) water. Then, they took a rest for the second week. In the third week, they did the trainings in cold environment (5 to 10° c, 60± 2% humidity) and went under recovery in cold and warm water. The control group underwent a week of resistance training in an environment with mild temperature (26± 2° c, 43± 2% humidity) and had the active recovery without water. Muscle soreness, body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate were assessed at different stages.
Results:The results revealed that there was a significant difference between recovery in warm and cold water on muscle soreness and vital factors after performing resistance exercise in cold and heat in stressful environments (P≤ 0.05). Active recovery in cold water causes greater reduction of muscle soreness in periods of 24 and 48 hours after training in cold environments and of blood pressure and heart rate two hours after doing exercise in warm and cold environments.
Conclusion: Swift recovery of vital factors and muscle soreness after resistance trainings in abnormal temperatures could best be achieved by an active recovery with cold water.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Recovery
  • Resistance exercise
  • Muscle soreness
  • Cardiac Response
  • Environment
  1. Tufano J, Brown L, Coburn J, Tsang K, Vanessa L. CazasLaporta J. Effect of aerobic recovery intensity on delayed-onset muscle soreness and strength. J Strength Cond Res. 2012; 26(27): 77-82.##
  2. Rowsell GJ, Coutts AJ, Reaburn P, Hill-Haas S. Effects of cold-water immersion on physical performance between successive matches in high performance junior male soccer players. J Spor Sci. 2009; 27: 565-73. ##
  3. Barnett A. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help? Sports Med. 2006; 36: 781-796. ##
  4. Pullinen T, Mero A, Huttunen P, Pakarinen A, Komi PV. Resistance exerciseinduced hormonal response under the influence of delayed onset muscle soreness in men and boys. Scand J Med Sci Spor. 2011; 21: 184-94. ##
  5. Ascensao A, Leite M, Rebelo AN, Magalhaes S, Magalhaes J. Effects of cold water immersion on the recovery of physical performance and muscle damage following a one-off soccer match. J Spor Sci. 2011; 29(3): 217-25. ##
  6. Rezaie Z, Esfarjani F, Marandy M. Changes in S-IgA Level following Intensive Exercise and Immersion in Hot and Cold Water. J of Isfahan Med School. 2012; 30(175): 1-11. ##
  7. Arazi H, Ghiasi A, Afkhami MR. Effects of rest intervals between circuit resistance exercises on post-exercise blood pressure responses in normotensive young males.. Asian j of sport med. 2013; 4(1): 63–69##
  8. Mawhinney C, Jones H, Joo CH, Low DA, Green DJ, and Gregson W. Influence of cold-water immersion on limb and cutaneous blood flow after exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013; 630(45): 2277-2285. ##
  9. Nakamura H, Matsuzaki I, Hatta K, Nagase H, Nobokuni Y, Kambayash Y, Ogino K. Blood endothelin-1 and cold-induced vasodilation I patients with primary Raynauld’s phenomenon and workers with vibration induced white finger. Int Angiol. 2003; 22: 243–249. ##
10. Racinais S, Oksa J. Temperature and neuromuscular function. Scand J Med Sci Spor. 2010; 20(3): 18-33. ##

11. Almeida WS, Lima LCJ, Cunha RR, Simoes HG, Nakamura FY and Campbell CSG. Post exercise blood pressure responses to cycle and arm-cranking. Scie & Sports. 2010; 25: 74-80. ##

12. Polito MD, Rosa CC and Schardong P. Acute cardiovascular responses on knee extension at different performance modes. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2004; 10: 177-180. ##

13. Guimaraes G.V, Galvani L, Fernandes M.M, Dorea E.L, Bocchi E.A. Heated water-based exercise training reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure levels in resistant hypertensive patients: A randomized controlled trial (HEx trial). Inte J of cardu. 2014; 172(2): 434–441. ##

  1. 14.  Halder C. Gao. Muscle Colling and Performancee: A Review. Euro J of Spor Med. 2014; 39(21): 39-46. ##
15. Farinatti PTV, Nakamura FY and Polito MD. Influence of recovery posture on blood pressure and heart rate after resistance exercise in normotensive subjects. J Strength Cond Res. 2009; 23: 2487-2492##

16. Smith D, Stephen R, Hogg J. Performance evaluation of swimmers. Sport med. 2002; 32(9): 539-54. ##

17. Pointon M, Duffield R, Cannon J & Marino F. Cold water immersion recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat. European Journal Applied Physiology. 2012a; 112: 2483–2494##

18. Rahmaninia F, Babaei P, Nokhostein R.B. Prevention and treatment of muscle soreness. In press univer of shomal. 2010; 1: 25-31 ##

19. Roberts LA, Nosaka K, Coombes JS, Peake JM. Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014; 307: 998–1008. ##

20. Anunciação PG, Polito MD. A review on post-exercise hypotension in hypertensive individuals. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2011; 96: e100-9. 36. ##

21. Bleakley CM, Davison GW. What is the biochemical and physiological rationale for using cold-water immersion in sports recovery? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2010; 44(3): 179-87. ##

22. Brzycki MA. Practical approach to strength training. 2th Edition. Indianapolis. Master Press 1995; p:62-65. ##

23. Reisi A, Taghian F, Esfarjani F. Comparison two methods of active recovery and contrast water immersion on muscle soreness rating and anaerobic performances in Futsal players after one session simulated team sport exercise. Sport Physiol. 2015; 24: 31-48. ##

24. Mousavi M. Effect of Precooling to cold water immersion method the core temperature performance, endurance, heart rate, lactic acid levels and plasma electrolytes teenage football players in warm weather. Master's thesis. Zanjan Univ Facul of Human. 2013; 5(2): 63–69##

25. Murray A, Delaney T, Bell C. Rapid onset and offset of circulatory adaptations to exercise training in men. J Hum Hypertens. 2006; 20: 193–200. ##

26. Pechter U, Ots M, Mesikepp S. Beneficial effects of water-based exercise in patients with chronic kidney disease. Int J Rehabil Res. 2003; 26: 153–6. ##

27. Schmid JP, Noveanu M, Morger C. Influence of water immersion, water gymnastics and swimming on cardiac output in patients with heart failure. Heart. 2007; 93: 722–7. ##

28. Stanley J, Peake J.M, Buchheit M. Consecutive days of cold water immersion: Effects on cycling performance and heart rate variability. Euro J of Appl Physiol. 2013; 113(2): 371-384 ##

29. Farokhshahi R, Rahmaninia F, Farzaneh S. The effect of glutamine supplementation on the severity of perceived pain and creatine kinase level changes result of eccentric exercise in untrained men. Sport physiol. 2013; 5(19): 97-110. ##

30. Brazaitis M, Laura L, Paulauskas H, Skurvydas A. Two strategies for the acute response to cold exposure but one strategy for the response to heat stress. Inte j of hyperther. 2015; 2: 65. ##

31. Farahani AV, Mansournia MA, Asheri H. The effects of a 10-week water aerobic exercise on the resting blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Asian J Sports Med. 2010; 1: 159–67. ##

32. Higgins T, Cameron ML, Climstein M. Acute response to hydrotherapy after a simulated game of rugby. J Stre Cond Res. 2013; 27(10): 2851-60. ##

33. Sayers M, Calder A, Sanders J. Effect of whole-body contrast-water therapy on recovery from intense exercise of short duration. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011; 11: 293-302. ##

34. Vaile J, Halson S, Gill N & Dawson B. Effect of hydrotherapy on recovery from fatigue. Int Journal Sports Med. 2008b; 29: 539–544. ##

35. Elias G.P, Wyckelsma V.L, Varley M, McKenna M & Aughey R. Effectiveness of water immersion on postmatch recovery in elite professional footballers. Int J of Sports Physiol and Perfor. 2013; 8: 243-253. ##