تأثیر تمرینات توپی بر تعادل ایستا و پویای کودکان با اختلال‎های طیف اتیسم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 استادیار رفتارحرکتی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

3 استاد روانشناسی بالینی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
اختلال‎های طیف اتیسم یک وضعیت عصبی-رشدی میباشد که در سال های اخیر شیوع بسیاری بین کودکان داشته است. کودکان مبتلا به اختلال‎های طیف اتیسم معمولاً مشکلات حرکتی از جمله اختلال‎های کنترل قامت و تعادل را دارا هستند. تعادل یکی از توانایی های پایه زندگی روزمره است. در این پژوهش محققان در پی آن بودند که اثر تمرینات توپ جیم بال را بر تعادل ایستا و پویای کودکان با اختلال‎های‎ طیف اتیسم مورد بررسی قرار دهند. 
مواد و روش ها
روش پژوهش حاضر از نوع آزمایشی و طرح پژوهش پیش و پس آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. جامعه آماری شامل کودکان با اختلال‎های طیف اتیسم کارکرد بالای مدرسه استثنایی فرزدقی شهرستان شیراز بود. آزمودنی‎ها 16 نفر (پسر)، به روش نمونه‎گیری در دسترس انتخاب و پس از اجرای پیش‎آزمون‎های تعادل ایستا و پویا به‎طور تصادفی در گروه‎های آزمایش و کنترل جاگذاری شدند (هر گروه 8 نفر). میانگین سن افراد شرکت‏کننده (2/9 ± 2/8)، بود. مداخله‎ تمرین با توپ جیم‏بال در 24 جلسه‌ی 35 دقیقه‌ای اعمال گردید. آزمون لک لک جهت اندازه‎گیری تعادل ایستا و آزمون راه رفتن بر تخته تعادل (WOBB)، برای اندازه‎گیری تعادل پویا به‎کار برده ‎شد.
یافته ها
در تعادل ایستا اختلاف معناداری بین گروه‏های کنترل و آزمایش یافت شد (256/3- =Z ، 1U=).  در تعادل پویا بین دو گروه اختلاف معناداری وجود نداشت (630/0- =Z ، 26 U=).
نتیجه گیری
 با توجه به نتایج پژوهش حاضر می‎توان نتیجه گرفت که تمرین با توپ جیم بال بر تعادل ایستای کودکان با اختلال‎های طیف اتیسم مؤثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Ball Exercises on Static and Dynamic Balance in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aghdas Babadi 1
  • Gholamhossein Nazemzadegan 2
  • Habib Hadianfard 3
1 Master of Motor Behavior. Shiraz University. Shiraz, Iran
2 Professor Motor Behavior. Shiraz University. Shiraz, Iran
3 Professor Clinical Psychology. Shiraz University. Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Autism spectrum disorders are neuro-developmental condition which is most prevalent among children in recent years. Children with autism spectrum disorders usually have mobility problems in postural control and balance. Balance is the one of basic ability in daily life. In this study researchers decided to investigation the effect of gym ball exercises on static and dynamic balance in children with autism spectrum disorders.
Materials and Methods: This study was an experimental with pre and posttests design and control grope. The population includes children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders from Farazdaghi exceptional school in Shiraz. 16 (males) subject were selected with access sampling method and after pre-test of static and dynamic balance were randomly placed in the experimental and control groups (each n = 8). Mean age of subjects were (8.2 ±2.9). Gym ball training intervention was applied in 24 sessions of 35 minutes. Flamingo test to measure static balance and walking on a balance board (WOBB) test, were used to measure dynamic balance.
Results: In static balance, significant difference were found between control and experimental groups (U=1, Z= 3.256). In dynamic, there was no significant difference between the two groups (U= 26, Z= 0.630).
Conclusion: According to the results of this study it can be concluded that Gym ball training is effective on static balance in children with autism spectrum disorders.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Static balance
  • dynamic Balance
  • Gym ball training
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders
  1. Kashef Mirmohammad. Corrective Exercises and Therapeutic Exercises.3rd Ed. Urmia University publishers; 2005##
  2. Zagyapan R, Iyem C, Kurkcuoglu A, Pelin C and Tekindal MA. The relationship between balance, muscles, and anthropomorphic features in young adults. Anatomy research international 2012; 1-6.##
  3. Letafatkar A, Daneshmandi H, Hadadnejad M and Abdolvahabi Z. Advanced Corrective Exercises (From Theory to Practice). 2nd Ed. Avaye Zohor Publishers; 2014.##
  4. Clark M and Lucett S. NASM essentials of corrective exercise training: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2010; P.99 &200-230.##
  5. Rahnama N, Bambaeichi E, Taghian F, Nazarian A.B and Abdollahi M. Effect of 8 weeks regular corrective exercise on spinal columns deformities in girl students. Journal of Isfahan Medical School 2010; 27(101): 676-686. [Article in Persian].##
  6. Abbaszadeh A, Sahebzamani M, AmirSeifadini M and Samsampour D. Effect of an 8 week corrective exercise on hyperlordosis girl students. Hormozgan Medical Journal 2012; 5: 377-386. [In Persian].##
  7. Ghorbani L and Ghasemi G. Effects of eight weeks corrective exercises on lumbar lordosis. Journal of research in rehabilitation sciences 2008. 3(2): 59-71. [In Persian].##
  8. Taheri E. Effect of two months pilates exercises on lumbar lordosis in 15-18 years old girl students in Birjand [dissertation]. Birjand University; 2009. ##
  9. Curi Perez V.S, Haas A.N and Wolff S.S. Analysis of activities in the daily lives of older adults exposed to the Pilates Method. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 2014; 18: 326–331.##
  10. 10.  Heyrani A, Rahmani M, Aghdasi M.T and Yazdanbakhsh K. The effect of Pilates training on motor performance inactive elderly men. Journal of research in motor behavior 2013; 1: 49-65. [In Persian].##
11. Sekendiz B, Altun O, Korkusuz F and Akin S. Effects of pilates exercise on trunk strength endurance and flexibility in sedentary adult females. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 2007; 11(4): 318-326.

12. Alizamani S, Ghasemi G, Salehi H and Marandi S. Effect of pilates exercises in female patients suffering from chronic low back pain. Journal of sport medicine 2009; 3: 37-55. [In Persian].##

13. Golpaygani M,  Mahdavi S and Moradi L. The Effects of a Pilates Training Program on the Function and Pain of Patients with Disc Herniation with Lumbosciatalgia. Journal of sport medicine 2013; 5(1): 41-53. [Article in Persian].##

14. Rajabi R, Seidi F and Mohamadi F. Which method is accurate when using the flexible ruler to measure the lumbar curvature angle? deep point or midpoint of arch. World Applied Sciences Journal 2008;4(6):849-52##

15.  Rezvankhah N,  Alizadeh M.H and Kordi M.R. The effect of four months of detraining following eight months of corrective exercises on lumbar lordosis of schoolgirls. Annals of applied sport science 2013; 1(2): 19-24##

16.  Alizadeh M.H, Rajabi R, Gheytasi M and Minoonejad H. Movement therapy (Exercise therapy). Tehran university publishers; 2013.##

17. Rahimi Gh and Hassanpour M. Effect of 8 week corrective exercise on curved lumbar in female students aged 19-25 in Lorestan University. Harakat 2006; 30: 69-86. [In Persian].##

18. Rezaei A, Mahdavinejad R and ShamlooRezaei Sh. Pilate's selected exercises effects on women's lumbar hyperlordosis in immediate post- partum period. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies 2014; 2(2): 48-53##

19. Wesley Carvalho Barbosa A, AntunesGuedes C, NovaesBonifacio D, Silvab A and Martins F. The Pilates breathing technique increases the electromyographic amplitude level of the deep abdominal muscles in untrained people. Journal of Bodywork and Movement 2015; 19(1): 57–61.##

20. Kamali M, Ghasemi B, Moradi M.R and BagherianDehkordi S. Comparing the effect of two kinds of the traditional and the NASM corrective exercises training protocols on the correction of hyperlordosis in female students. Journal of research in rehabilitation sciences 2015; 2:230-243. [In Persian].##

21. Ghasemi GH, Sadeghi M, Minasian V and Velayati F. Effect of 8 week corrective movements on lumbar lordosis in female students. Contemporary studies on sport management 2013; 5:101-108. [In Persian].##

22. Rajabi R, Youzbashi L and Ebrahimitakamjani S. Effect of a period of pilates exercise on hyperlordosis in nonathletic women. Research in sport sciences 2010; 8:105-118. [In Persian].##

23. Alizadeh M.H, Choubineh S and Kordi M.R. Relationship between lumbar curve and length of iliac muscle and power of abdomen muscles. Hrarakat 2007; 27:5-18. [In Persian].##

24. Daneshmandi H, Sardar M.A and Taghizadeh M. Effect of motor program on lumbar lordosis. Research in sport sciences 2005; 3(8): 91-104. [In Persian].##

25. Seidi F, Rajabi R, Ebrahimitakamjani S and Jadidian A. Relationship between power of abdominal muscles and hip extensor muscles and range of lumbar curve. Research in sport management and motor learning 2007; 10: 25-38. [In Persian].##