تاثیر تمرینات ادراکی-حرکتی بسکتبال بر عملکرد تعادلی کودکان مبتلا به کمبود توجه-بیش فعالی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه رفتارحرکتی و روانشناسی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه رفتارحرکتی و روانشناسی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
اختلال کمبود توجه_ بیش فعالی نوعی اختلال رشدی است. کودکان مبتلا به اختلال کمبود توجه – بیش فعالی به طور عمده با هماهنگی حرکتی ضعیف و بی دست و پا توصیف می شوند. لذا در تحقیق حاضر تلاش شد تا اثر تمرینات ادراکی- حرکتی بر عملکرد تعادلی کودکان مبتلا به اختلال کمبود توجه-بیش فعالی ارزیابی شود.
مواد و روش ها
مطالعه حاضر از نوع تحقیقات نیمه تجربی با طرح پیش آزمون پس آزمون با یک گروه کنترل است. شرکت کنندگان شامل 20 پسر مبتلا به اختلال کمبود توجه در دامنه سنی 9 تا 12 سال بودند که به روش نمونه گیری در دسترس از یکی از کلینیک های واقع در شهر تبریز انتخاب شدند و به طور تصادفی در دو گروه (تجربی و کنترل) به تعداد یکسان جای گرفتند. تمرینات ادراکی-حرکتی به مدت 4 هفته، هر هفته 3 جلسه روی گروه تجربی انجام گرفت. داده ها با استفاده از آزمون های تعادل لک لک، رسیدن عملکردی و اصلاح شده ی باس جمع آوری شدند. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از روش آماری تحلیل کواریانس انجام گرفت.
یافته ها
نتایج نشان داد مداخله صورت گرفته تاثیر قابل توجهی بر تعادل ایستا نداشته است، اما به طور معناداری باعث بهبود تعادل نیمه پویا و پویای کودکان مبتلا به کمبود توجه-بیش فعالی شده است.
نتیجه گیری
 تمرینات ادراکی-حرکتی می تواند در جهت بهبود عملکرد تعادلی کودکان مبتلا به کمبود توجه-بیش فعالی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of Perceptual-Motor Training Basketball on Balance Function of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahta Eskandarnejad 1
  • Maryam Jahedi Khajeh 2
  • Fahimeh Rezaee 2
1 Associated professor, motor behavior and sport psychology department, physical education faculty, university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 MA student, motor behavior and sport psychology department, physical education faculty, university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder usually characterized by poor coordination and clumsiness. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the effect of perceptual-motor training on the balance function of children with ADHD.
Materials and Methods: The present study followed a semi experimental design with pretest-posttest also including a control group. Participants included 20 boys with ADHD aged between 9-12 years who were selected, based on available sampling, from one of the clinics in the city of Tabriz and randomly divided into two equal groups of experimental and control. Perceptual-motor training was conducted for 4 weeks, 3 sessions per week, on experimental group. The data were collected using the Stork Balance Stand Test, Functional Reach Test, and Modified Bass Test of Dynamic Balance. Data analysis was performed using covariance analysis method.
Results: The results showed that the intervention did not have a significant effect on static balance, but significantly improved semi-dynamic balance and dynamic balance of children with ADHD.
Conclusion: The perceptual-motor training can be used to improve balance in children with ADHD.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Perceptual-motor training
  • Balance function
  1. Bussing, R., et al., Adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a diverse community sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2010. 49(6): p. 595-605. ##
  2. Bakhshipour, E., et al., Comparing the effects of an aerobic exercise program and group-based play therapy on the balance of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Science, 2013. 9(2): p. 161-170. [In Persian]. ##
  3. Kakavand, A.R., Child and Adolesent Psychopathology. 2006, Tehran: Virayesh. [In Persian]. ##
  4. Bakhshayesh, A.R., G. Asar, and A. Vishkan, The impact of EEG biofeedback in treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Psychological Research, 2010. 13(1): p. 7-29. [In Persian]. ##
  5. Alizadeh, H., Theoretical explanation attention deficit / hyperactivity: the pattern of behavioral inhibition and self-control nature. Journal of Exceptional Children, 2005. 5(3): p. 323-348. [In Persian].
  6. Torabi, F. and E. Tavakoli, Motor problems of children with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity disorder and therapeutic strategies. Journal of Exceptional Education, 2015. 15(1): p. 39-48. [In Persian]. ##
  7. Rahimi, S., Motor Skills in Children with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Exceptional Education, 2010(100): p. 46-57 [In Persian]. ##
  8. Koosha, M., A.A. Norasteh, and Z. Ghandriz, Comparison of Balance in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder. Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences, 2013. 22(86): p. 46-52 [In Persian]. ##
  9. Kooistra, L., et al., Can attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder be differentiated by motor and balance deficits? Human Movement Science, 2009. 28(4): p. 529-542. ##
  10. Shum, S.B. and M.Y. Pang, Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have impaired balance function: involvement of somatosensory, visual, and vestibular systems. The Journal of Pediatrics, 2009. 155(2): p. 245-249. ##
  11. Soltani koohbanani, S., Comparison of Movement Skill Growth in Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder With Normal Students. Scientific Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences, 2009. 17(4): p. 45-52 [In Persian]. ##
  12. Alizadeh, H., Attention Deficit Disorder / Hyperactivity movement: Features, Evaluation, and Treatment. 2008, Tehran: Roshd [In Persian]. ##
  13. Yaryari, F., et al., Assessment of motor skills and neuromuscular function of students with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. Exceptional Children, 2001. 1(1): p. 17-34. [In Persian]. ##
  14. Spetie, L. and E.L. arnold, Attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. In: martin a, volkmar FR, (editors). Lewis’s Child and Adolescent Psychiatry a Comprehensive Textbook. 4th ed. 2007, Philadelphia: Lippincott williams & wilkins, 2007. p. 323–43. ##
  15. Engel-Yeger, B. and D. Ziv-On, The relationship between sensory processing difficulties and leisure activity preference of children with different types of ADHD. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 2011. 32(3): p. 1154-1162. ##
  16. Zang, Y., et al., Objective measurement of the balance dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, 2002. 6(9): p. 1372-1374. ##
  17. Buchmann, J., et al., Restoration of disturbed intracortical motor inhibition and facilitation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children by methylphenidate. Biological Psychiatry, 2007. 62(9): p. 963-969.
  18. Kosari, S., et al., Effect of a Selected Physical Activity Program on the Development of Motor Skills in Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism (HFA) Children. Journal of Development and Motor Learning, 2012. 4(10): p. 45-60. (in persian) ##
  19. Memarmoghaddam, M., et al., Effect of a period of selected training program on planning and problem solving of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Motor Behavior, 2015. 7(21): p. 161-176. (in persian) ##
  20. Payne, V.G. and L.D. Issacs, Human motor development. 5th Ed. 2002, Boston: Mc Graw. Hill. ##
  21. Keyhani, F. and S. Kosari, The effect of a period of physical activity on the development object control skills in high function autism children's (HFA). Motor Behavior, 2015. 6(18): p. 103-116. (in persian) ##
  22. BasamTabar, S.M., Effects of Eight Weeks of Perceptual Motor Training on Perceptual Motor Performance in Children Aged 8-10 Years in Kermanshah. International Journal of Sport Studies, 2014. 4(4): p. 421-427. ##
  23. Sajedi, F. and H. Barati, The effect of Perceptual Motor Training on Motor Skills of preschool children. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 2014. 12(1): p. 14-17. ##
  24. Salman, Z., et al., The Effects of Perceptual Motor Training on Improving Motor Abilities of Elementary Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Tehran. Journal of Development and Motor Learning, 2009. 1(2): p. 47-63. [In Persian]. ##
  25. Hickey, G. and P. Fricker, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, CNS stimulants and sport. Sports Medicine, 1999. 27(1): p. 11-21. ##
  26. Verret, C. Guay, M.C. Berthiaume, C. Gardiner, P. Béliveau, L., A physical activity 3program improves behaviour and cognitive functions in children with ADHD: An exploratory study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 2012. 16(1): p. 71-80. ##
  27. Bayazit, B., The effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children. Educational Research and Reviews, 2015. 10(5): p. 648. ##
  28. Faal Moghanlo, H., F.S. Hosseini, and F. Mikaili Manee, Comparison the Impact of Spark Motor Program and Basketball Techniques on Improving Gross Motor Skills in Educable Intellectually Disabled Boys. Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, 2014. 14(3): p. 274-284. [In Persian]. ##
  29. Bahram, M.E., et al., Effect of a 12-week interval running program on female primary school students with ADHD. KAUMS Journal (FEYZ), 2014. 18(2): p. 151-158. [In Persian]. ##
  30. 3Gronlund, E., B. Renck, and J. Weibull, Dance/movement therapy as an alternative treatment for young boys diagnosed as ADHD: A pilot study. American Journal of Dance Therapy, 2005. 27(2): p. 63-85. ##
  31. Watemberg, N., et al., Developmental coordination disorder in children with attention‐deficit–hyperactivity disorder and physical therapy intervention. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 2007. 49(12): p. 920-925. ##
  32. Eskandarnejad, M., Applied tests for Physical fitness. 1th edition. 2015, Tabriz: Akhtar. [In Persian]. ##
  33. Hatem A. E, Normal values and factors affecting functional reach test in Saudi arabia school children with typical development. International Journal of Physiotherapy, 2015. 2(5): p. 751-758. ##
  34. Davarpanah Jazi, SH., Purrajabi, F. Movahedi, A. Jalali, SH, Effect of Selected Balance Exercises on the Dynamic Balance of Children with Visual Impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 2012. 106(8): p. 466-475. ##
  35. Fisher, A., et al., Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2005. 37(4): p. 684-688. ##
  36. Salie, R., The effects of a group exercise program on primary school children aged six to ten years diagnosed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). 2009, University of Stellenbosch. ##
  37. Nolan, D., Single-leg standing abilities of adolescent athletes and non-athletes. 2008. Massachusetts General Hospital Institute of Health Professions. ##
  38. Rajabi, F., M. Namazizadeh, and R. Badami, The effect of basic gymnastics exercises on movement skills of children with autism disorder. Motor Behavior, 2015. 7(20): p. 73-88. [In Persian]. ##
  39. Ashrafy, L., M. Namazyzadeh, and F. Davary, Effect of rhythmic exercise on perceptual – moving skills children with visual impairments. Motor Behavior, 2015. 6(18): p. 117-130. [In Persian]. ##
  40. Pereira, A.C., et al., An in vivo correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2007. 104(13): p. 5638-5643. ##
  41. Rahbanfard, H., The effect of special moves program on perceptual-motor abilities in student aged 10-13 Years in Tehran. 1998, Tehran University [In Persian].##