تاثیر هشت هفته برنامه تمرینی ادراکی-حرکتی بر حافظه فعال کودکان مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد تربیت بدنی، گرایش رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه دانشکده تربیت بدنی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دکترای رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه، دانشکده تربیت بدنی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 دکترای روانشناسی شناختی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
حافظه نقش مهمی در زندگی افراد ایفا می‌کند و به طور لاینفک در هر تکلیف شناختی از آسان‌ترین تا دشوارترین تکلیف درگیر است. هدف از مطالعه حاضر بررسی تاثیر هشت هفته برنامه تمرینی ادراکی-حرکتی بر حافظه کاری کودکان مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی بود.
مواد و روش ها
تعداد 20 آزمودنی کودک در دامنه سنی 8-12 سال از بین کودکان با اختلال هماهنگی رشدی حاضر در مدارس استثنایی شهرستان کرمانشاه به صورت نمونه در دسترس انتخاب گردیده و به صورت تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل قرار گرفتند. پروتکل تمرینی شامل 8 هفته تمرینات ادراکی-حرکتی بود که طی سه جلسه در هفته و 50 دقیقه تمرینات انجام گردید. حافظه فعال قبل و بعد از تمرینات به وسیله ابزار معتبر [نرم‌افزار حافظه کاری وکسلر]، اندازه‌گیری شد. پس از اطمینان از توزیع طبیعی داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون کولمو گرف-اسمیرنوف، از آزمون‌های t همبسته و مستقل برای مقایسه نتایج درون و بین گروهی استفاده شد.
یافته ها
پیشرفت معنا‌داری در حافظه فعال از پیش-آزمون تا پس-آزمون در گروه آزمایش وجود داشت (001/0=P). همچنین یافته‌ها نشان داد گروه تجربی نسبت به گروه کنترل در حافظه فعال به طور معنا‌داری بهتر بودند (002/0=P).
نتیجه گیری
الگوی نتایج تحقیق پیشنهاد می کند که به احتمال زیاد انجام تمرینات ادراکی-حرکتی موجب بهبود عملکرد حافظه فعال کودکان دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Eight Weeks of Perceptual-Motor Training on Working Memory in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Valinia 1
  • Ali Heirani 2
  • Kamran Yazdanbakhsh 3
1 MA in Physical Education, Branch of Motor Behavior, Razi University, Kermanshah Faculty of Physical Education, Kermanshah, Iran
2 PhD in Motor Behavior, Razi University of Kermanshah, Faculty of Physical Education, Kermanshah, Iran
3 PhD in Cognitive Psychology, Razi University of Kermanshah, Faculty of Social Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Memory plays an important role in Psychology and is inseparable from simple to difficult tasks involved in any cognitive task. The present research aimed to examine the effects of an eight-week perceptual-motor training program on working memory in 8-12 year-old children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD).
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children with DCD were selected from DCD students of exceptional schools in Kermanshah city and randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. The perceptual-motor training protocol consisted of eight weeks, three sessions per week, and 50 minutes for each session. Working memory was measured using the working memory software standard test.
Results: After making sure about normality of distribution using klomogrov-smirnov test, the data were analyzed using paired and independent t-tests for comparing within and between group effects. There was a significant improvement from pretest to posttests in the experimental group regarding the working memory (p=0/001). Moreover, the findings showed that experimental group was significantly better than control group in working memory (p=0/002).
Conclusion: According to the present study, perceptual-motor training program improves working memory functions in children with DCD.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • children
  • developmental coordination disorder
  • Perceptual-motor training
  • Working memory
  1. Jenkinson J, Hyde T, Ahmad S.] 2008]. Building Blocks for Learning Occupational Therapy Approaches: Practical Strategies for the Inclusion of Special Needs in Primary School. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.##
  2. Baranek GT. ]2002]. Efficacy of sensory and motor interventions for children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord; 32: 397-422. ##
  3. Jepsen RH, Von Thaden K. ]2002]. The effect of cognitive education on the performance of students with neurological developmental disabilities. Neurorehabilitation; 17: 201-209. ##
  4. American Psychiatric Association. ]1381]. Text revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Th ]Nykkhv, Llanes: Translators]. Tehran: sokhan Publications. ]Date of publication of the work in 2000]. ##
  5. Morven F. Ball. I ]2006]. Developmental Coordination Disorder Hints and Tips for the Activities of Daily Living. Publishers London and Philadelphia. ##
  6. Kadesjo B, & Gillberg C. ]1999]. Developmental coordinationdisorder in Swedish 7-year old children. Journal of American Academy for child and Adolescence Psychiatry, 38, 820-828. ##
  7. Saif Naraghi Maryam, Nadery Ezatullah. ]1384]. "Learning how to identify specific deficiencies and methods of rehabilitation.« Mkyal Press, 1-20. ##
  8. Alizadeh, Hamid; Zahedi Pour, Mehdi. ]1383]. "Executive functions in children with and without developmental coordination disorder " Cognitive Science News, Vol. 6, No. 3, 49-56. ##
  9. Alloway T, Gathercole S, Adams & Willis C. ]2005]. Working memory abilities in children with special needs. Educational Child Psychology, 58-70. ##
  10. Gathercole, Susane. Alloway, Tracy P. Kirkwood, Hannah J. Elliott, Julian G.Holmes, Joni. Hilton, Kerry A. ]2007] . Attentional and executive function behaviours in children With poor working memory, Learning and Individual Differences. 18] 2008] 214–223. ##
  11.  Gathercole SE, Alloway TP. working memory and classroom learning. Dyslexia Review 2004; 15:4-9. ##
  12. Olesen PJ, Westerberg H, Klingberg T. Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory. Nature Neuroscience. 2004; ]7]: 75-79. ##
  13. Dehn MJ. Working memory and academic learning. New Jersey: Wiley; 2008. ##
  14. Alizadeh, Hamid. ]1385]. Administrative functions related to neuro-cognitive developmental disorder. New Cognitive Science, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 57-70. ##
  15. Sudgen D & Chambers M. ]2005]. "Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder". London: WHURR Publishers Ltd: 154-168. ##
  16. Kirby A, Sugden D, Beveridge S & Edwards L. ]2008]. "Developmental coordination disorder ]DCD] in adolescents and adults in further and higher education". Journal of Research in Special Education Needs, 8]3], 120–131. ##
  17. Missiuna C, Rivard & Pollock N. ]2011]. "Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder": CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research, Mc Master University: 1-2. ##
  18. Salman Zahra, Sheikh Mahmoud, Saif Naraghi Maryam, Arab Ameri Elahe, Aghapour Seyed Mahdi. ]1388]. "The effect of perceptual- motor training on motor recovery capabilities of students with developmental coordination disorder in primary school in Tehran." Growth and motor learning, ]2], 47-63. ##
  19. Ebrahimi Sani, Zahra. ]1389]. "The impact of selective motor program on visual-motor skills in Developmental coordination disorder students aged 11-7". MA thesis. Faculty of Physical Education Shahid Beheshti University S 4-3. ##
  20. Maruff P, Wilson P , Trebilcock M,  Currie J.(1999). Abnormalities of imagined motor sequences in children with developmental coordination disorder. Neuropsychologia Volume 37, Issue 11, October 1999, Pages 1317–1324. ##
  21. Ameratunga D, Johnston L & Burns Y. ]2004]. Goaldirected upper limb movement by children with and without DCD: A window in to percepto-motor dysfunction? Physiotherapy Research International. 9, 1-12. ##
  22. Geuze R H. ]2005]. "Postural control in children with a development coordination disorder". Neural Plasticity.12, 183-190. ##
  23. Geuze R H.]2003]. “Static balance and developmental coordination disorder”. Human Movement Science, 22, PP: 527-548. ##
  24.  Payne V Gregory, Larry D Isaacs. ]1384]. "The human motor development approach in a lifetime" translation of Khalaji H, Khajoo D. Arak University Press, first edition. ##
  25. Rhbanfrd, Hassan. ]1377]. " Effects of perceptual- motor abilities schedules for students educable mentally retarded boy Tehran aged 10-13 ]school special shady]," MA thesis, University of Thran:1-20. ##
  26. Wilson, B. N., Crawford, S. G., Green, D., Roberts, G., Aylott, A., & Kaplan, B. J. (2009). Psychometric properties of the revised Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. Journal of Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 29, 182– 202. ##
  27. Shahbazi, Soheyla. ]1392]. "The effect of 8 weeks of perceptual- motor training on motor skill and cognitive function in children with hyperactivity disorder". MS Thesis, University of Kermanshah, p. 73. ##
  28. Afshari J. ]2012]. The effect of perceptual- motor training on attention in the children with autism spectrum disorders. Reserch in Autism spectrum disorders. 6]4] 1331-1336. ##
  29. Sheikh Mahmoud; Bagherzadeh Fazlullah, Shahbazi Mahdi; tahmasebi Boroujeni Shahrzad; Hvmynyan Davood. ]1383]. relationship between perceptual- motor abilities and mental development of students. Motion No. 28, pp: 51-56. ##
  30. Jeffrey M, Halperin D, Healey M. ]2011]. The influences of environmental enrichment, cognitive enhancement, and physical exercise on brain development: Can we alterthe developmental trajectory of ADHD?. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 35]3] 621-634. ##
  31. Ellemberg D & St-Louis-Deschenes M. ]2010]. The effect of acute physical exercise on cognitive function during development. Psychology of Sport and exercise. ]3] 11,122-126. ##
  32. Baddely AD, Hitch GJ. ]1974[ Working memory. Bower H, editors. The Psychology of Learning and Motivationi Advances in Research and Theory. Academic press, New York. ##
  33. Daneman M, Carpenter PA. ]1980[ Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior; 19:450-66. ##
  34. Haber Landt K. ]1996[ Cognitive Psychology. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ##
  35. Goldman-Rakic PS. ]1992.[ Working memory and the mind. Scientific American;267: 110-17. ##
  36. Shahbazi Mahdi. ]1382]. relationship between perceptual- motor abilities and mental development of students. Master's thesis, Tehran University. ##
  37. Acebes, A. Ferrus, A. ] 2001]. Increasing the number of synapses modifies olfactory perception in Drosophila. J Neurosci; 15:6264–6273. ##
  38. Devaud, J.M. Acebes, A. Ferrus, A. ]2001]. Odor exposure causes central adaptation and morphological changes in selected olfactory glomeruli in Drosophila. J Neurosci; 15: 6274–6282. ##
  39. Chen,R.Cohen,L.G.Hallet, M.]2002]. Nervous system reorganization following injury. Neuroscience; 6: 761–773. ##
  40. Elbert, T. Pantev, C. Wienbruch, C. Rockstroh, B. Taub, E. ]1995]. Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science; 270:305–307. ##
  41. Gomez-Pinilla F. ]2011]. The combined effects of exercise and food in preventing neurological and cognitive disorders. Preventive Medicine, 52, 75-80. ##
  42. Norton D J, McBain R K, Ongur D & Cgen Y. ]2011]. Perceptual training strongly imprones visual motion perception in schizophrenia. Brain and Cognition, 77]2], 248-256. ##
  43. Sagvolden T, Johansen E B, Aase H & Russell V A. ]2005]. Adynamic development theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ]adhd] predominantly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28]3], 397-419. ##
  44.  Velikonja O, Curic K, Ozura A & Jazbec S S.] 2010]. Influence of sports climbing andyoga on spasticty, cognitive function, mood and fatigue in patients withmultiple sclerosis. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 112]7], 597-601. ##