طراحی و بررسی روایی محتوایی برنامه‌ی مداخله‌ی حافظه‌ی کاری در کودکان با اختلال یادگیری خاص

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد کاردرمانی، گروه کاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، گروه کاردرمانی، عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

3 پسادکترای روان شناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، گروه روان شناسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
کودکان با اختلال یادگیری خاص متحمل نقص/محدودیت در ظرفیت حافظه‌ی کاری می‌باشند. مداخلات موثرتر در این زمینه نیازمند برنامه‌ی آموزشی مورد تایید متخصصان می‌باشد‌. هدف از مطالعه حاضر طراحی برنامه‌ی آموزش حافظه‌ی کاری برای کودکان با اختلال یادگیری خاص و بررسی روایی محتوای آن می‌باشد.
مواد و روش ­ها
در مطالعه حاضر مراحل کار شامل: 1) انتخاب مدل حافظه‌ی کاری مناسب، 2) تهیه فعالیت‌های مرتبط با حافظه‌ی کاری از منابع مختلف، 3) طبقه‌بندی فعالیت‌ها، 4) تایید فعالیت‌ها توسط 13 نفر از متخصصان در زمینه اختلال یادگیری خاص، 5) بررسی روایی محتوایی برنامه‌ی آموزشی حافظه‌ی کاری و 6) درجه‌بندی فعالیت‌ها می‌باشد. روایی محتوایی با استفاده از CVR اندازه­گیری شد.
یافته­ ها
برنامه‌ی آموزش حافظه‌ی کاری بر اساس مدل بدلی طراحی شده است. به طور کلی این برنامه شامل 14 فعالیت مربوط به حافظه‌ی کاری بینایی-فضایی و 13 فعالیت مربوط به حافظه‌ی کاری کلامی-شنیداری می‌باشد. هر طبقه بر اساس درجه‌ی سختی دارای 4 زیرمجموعه شامل "آسان تا سخت" (7 فعالیت)، "متوسط" (7 فعالیت)، "متوسط تا سخت" (7 فعالیت) و "سخت" (6 فعالیت) می‌باشد. تمامی فعالیت‌ها دارای CVR قابل قبول می‌باشند.
نتیجه­ گیری
برنامه آموزش حافظه­ی کاری می­تواند توسط کاردرمانگران برای کودکان با اختلال یادگیری خاص استفاده شود. تاثیر این برنامه باید بررسی شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Development and Content Validity of Working Memory Training Program (WMTP) in Children with Specific Learning Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasrin Nazok 1
  • Malahat Akbarfahimi 2
  • Akram Parand 3
1 Master Student of Occupational Therapy, Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
2 Associated Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
3 Post Doctorate in Psychology of Exceptional Children, Department of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Children with Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) suffer from impairment/limitation in their working memory capacity. More effective interventions require approved training program by experts. The purpose of the present study was to develop a working memory training program (WMTP) for children with SLD and assess their validity by experts.
Materials and Methods: First, a proper working memory model was selected and then working memory-related activities were selected from various sources. Next, the activities were classified and approved by 13 experts in SLD. Later the face and content validities of activities of WMTP were evaluated and the activities were graded. The content validity was assessed using CVR.
Results: The WMTP was designed based on Baddeley model. Overall, this program consists of 14 visuo-spatial working memory and 13 phonological activities with each activity divided into four categories according to the levels of difficulty. Each category consists of easy to hard (no=7), moderate (no=7), moderate to hard (no=7), and hard (no=6) activities. All the activities had acceptable CVR.
Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the present study, the WMTP could be applied by occupational therapists for children with SLD. The efficacy of this program should be assessed in further studies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Content validity
  • Specific learning disorder
  • Working memory
  1. Jeste DV, Lieberman JA, Fassler D and Peele R. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders:DSM-5. 5th ed. United States of America: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. P.31-87.##
  2. Behrad B. Meta analysis of the prevalence of learning disabilities Elementary Students in Iran.Research on Exceptional Children. 2006;18(4):417-436.[ In Persian] ##
  3. Gathercole SE and Alloway TP. Understanding working memory: A classroom guide. United kigdom: Lontoo: Harcourt Assessment.2007; P.12-13. ##
  4. Maehler C and Schuchardt K. Working memory functioning in children with learning disabilities: does intelligence make a difference?. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2009; 53(1):3-10. ##
  5. Afrooz Gh, Ghasemzadeh S, Taziki T, Mohajerani M and Dalvand M. Effectiveness of sensorimotor interventions to increase the attention span of students with learning disabilities. learning disabilities journal. 2014; 4(1):23-27.[ In Persian] ##
  6. Habib M. The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia. Brain. 2000; 123(12):2373-2399. ##
  7. Copeland JB. Parent and therapist perceptions of sensory based strategies used by occupational therapists in family-centered early intervention practice. [Master of science thesis].Richmond: Virginia Commonwealth University;2006. ##
  8. Morris S. Promoting social skills amongstudents with nonverbal learning disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children. 2002; 34(3):66-71. ##
  9. Mohammadi H and Naderi E. Comparing The Rate of Prevalent Behavior Disorders among Ardebil Elementary School Students with and without Specific Learning Disabilities. Journal of experimental child psychology. 2011; 1(1):1-25.[ In Persian] ##
10. Wang LC Tasi HJ and Yang HM. Cognitive inhibition in students with and without dyslexia and dyscalculia. Research in developmental disabilities. 2012; 33(5):1453-1461. ##

11. Zakopoulou V. et al. Specific learning difficulties: A retrospective study of their co morbidity and continuity as early indicators of mental disorders. Research in developmental disabilities. 2014; 35(12):3496-3507. ##

12. Mammarella IC, Bomba M and Broggi F. Anxiety and depression inchildren with nonverbal learning disabilities, reading disabilities, or typical development. Journal of learning disabilities. 2014:1-10. ##

13. Peng P and Fuchs D. A randomized control trial of working memory training with and without strategy instruction effects on young children’s working memory and comprehension. Journal of learning disabilities. 2015:1-19. ##

14. Klingberg T. Training Working Memory. The ADHD Report: Special Issue—Focus on Assessment. 2006; 14(1):1-8. ##

15. Gagne ED, Yekovich CW and Yekovich FR. The cognitive psychology of school learning. Allyn & Bacon: 1993. ##

16. Atkinson RC and Shiffrin RM. Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. Spence KW, editor. The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory. 2ed ed. New York: Academic Press. 1968. p. 89–195. ##

17. Craik FI and Lockhart RS. Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior. 1972; 11(6):671-684. ##

18. Baddeley AD and Hitch GJ. Working memory. psychology of learning and motivation journal. 1974; 8(3):47-89. ##

19. Kane MJ, Bleckley MK, Conway ARA and Engle RW. A controlled-attention view of working-memory capacity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2001; 130(2): 169-183. ##

20. Cowan N. Activation, attention, and short-term memory. Memory & Cognition. 1993; 21(2):162-167. ##

21. Alloway TP. Working memory, but not IQ, predicts subsequent learning in children with learning difficulties. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 2009; 25(2):92-97. ##

22. St Clair-Thompson HL and Gathercole SE. Executive functions and achievements in school: Shifting, updating, inhibition, and working memory. The quarterly journal of experimental psychology. 2006; 59(4):745-759. ##

23. Andersson U and Lyxell B. Working memory deficit in children with mathematical difficulties: A general or specific deficit? Journal of experimental child psychology. 2007; 96(3):197-228. ##

24. Schuchardt K, Maehler C and Hasselhorn M. Working memory deficits in children with specific learning disorders. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2008; 41(6):14-523. ##

25. Gathercole SE, Alloway TP, Willis C and Adams AM. Working memory in children with reading disabilities. Journal of experimental child psychology. 2006; 93(3):265-281. ##

26. Passolunghi MC and Mammarella IC. Selective spatial working memory impairment in a group of children with mathematics learning disabilities and poor problem-solving skills. Journal of learning disabilities. 2012. 45(4):341-350. ##

27. Delavarian M, Bokharaeian B, Towhidkhah F and Afrooz Gh. Working Memory Training in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability, Through Designed Computerized ProgramIranian Rehabilitation Journal. 2015; 13(4):68-73. [In Persian] ##

28. Klingberg T, et al. Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD-a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2005; 44(2):177-186. ##

29. Van der Molen MJ, Van Luit JEH, Van der Molen MW, Klugkist I and Jongmans MJ. Effectiveness of a computerised working memory training in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2010; 54(5): 433-447. ##

30. Asadzadeh H. Explores the relationship between working memory capacity and academic performance among students third grade in Tehran. Journal of Education. 1998; 97:53-69.[ In Persian] ##

31. Mohammadi R, Behnia F, Farahbod M and Rahgozar M. Occupational therapy interventions effect on mathematical problems in students with special learning disorders. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal. 2009;7(10):25-30. [ In Persian] ##

32. Whalen S. How occupational therapy makes a difference in the school system: A summary of the literature. OT Now. 2002; 4(3):15-18. ##

33. Mandani B and Farahbod M.The efficacy of occupational therapy intervention in visual-spatialand visual Analysis skills development among children with learning disorders. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal. 2009; 7(1):25-29.[ In Persian] ##

34. Palisano R.J. Comparison of two methods of service delivery for students with learning disabilities. Physical & occupational therapy in pediatrics. 1989; 9(3):79-100. ##

35. Niehues AN, Bundy AC, Mattingly CF and Lawlor MC. Making a difference: Occupational therapy in the public schools. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health. 1991; 11(4):195-212. ##

36. Akbari E. Learning disorder(mathematic, writting, reading). Tehran: Nazari publication; 2011.[ In Persian] ##

37. Tabrizi M, Tabrizi A and Tabrizi N. Treatment of mathematical learning disorder.2nd ed. Tehran: Fararavan publication; 2013.[ In Persian] ##

38. Mahmudpur A. Methods and sterategies for memory improvement.18 ed. Tehran: madreseh publication; 2014.[ In Persian] ##

39. Ekhtiyari H and Rezapur T. Brain Gym.2nd ed. Tehran: Mehrsa; 2015.[ In Persian] ##

40. Tabrizi M, Tabrizi A and Tabrizi N. Treatment of dictation learning disorder. 3 ed. Tehran: Fararavan publication; 2013.[ In Persian] ##

41. Lak M. Methods to increase accuracy and mindfulness students. 2013; available at: http://moshaver122.mihanblog.com/post/65. Accessed 4 Jun 2015.[ In Persian] ##

42. Ahmadi M. Exercises to strengthen the visual memory of children.2013; available at: http://behbodclinic.blogfa.com/post/24.Accessed 4 Jun 2015.[ In Persian] ##

43. Gang khanlu S. Ways of strengthening auditory memory. 2014;available at: http://www.ghoftar.ir/1171. Accessed 4 Jun 2015.[ In Persian] ##

44. Sharifi M. Exercises to strengthen the auditory memory. 2015; available at: http://pakdelha.ir/2016/07/24/1281/. Accessed 4 Jun 2015.[ In Persian]. ##

45. Amin H and Malik AS. Human memory retention and recall processes. Neurosciences. 2013; 18(4):330-344. ##

46. Yonelinas AP. The nature of recollection and familiarity: A review of 30 years of research. Journalof memory and language. 2002; 46(3):441-517. ##

47. Eichenbaum H, Yonelinas A and Ranganath C. The medial temporal lobe and recognition memory. Annual review of neuroscience. 2007; 30(7):123-152. ##

48. Dahlin KI. Working memory training and the effect on mathematical achievement in children with attention deficits and special needs. Journal of Education and Learning. 2013; 2(1): p.118-133. ##

49. Roording-Ragetlie S, Klip H, Buitelaar J and Slaats-Willemse D. Working Memory Training in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Psychology. 2016; 7(3): p. 310-325. ##

50. Nisha V and Kumar K. The Efficacy of Computer Assisted Cognitive Training in the Remediation of Specific Learning Disorders. International Journal of Scientific and  Research Publications. 2013;3(3): p. 119. ##

51. Alloway TP, Bibile V and Lau G. Computerized working memory training: Can it lead to gains in cognitive skills in students?. Computers in Human Behavior. 2013; 29(3): p. 632-638. ##

52. Lee YS, Lu Mj and Ko Hp. Effects of skill training on working memory capacity. Learning and Instruction. 2007; 17(3): p. 336-344. ##

53. Ensafi E, Rostami R, Dolatshahi B, Poursharifi H and Nouri M. The Effectiveness of Neurofeedback on the Working Memory in Children with ADHD. practice in clinical psychology. 2014; 2(3):p.128-134. ##