بررسی اثرات کوتاه مدت نویز بر مسیرهای شنوایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 1- جراح و متخصص گوش و حلق و بینی، دانشیار، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکترای شنوایی شناسی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

3 عضو هیات علمی، گروه شنوایی شناسی، دانشکده توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
نویز(اصوات ناخواسته با شدت بیشتر از 100 دسی بل) به صورت­های مختلف بر دستگاه شنوایی اثر می­گذارد. بیشترین اثر پاتوفیزیولوژیک ناشی از مواجهه کوتاه مدت با نویز، بر حلزون و سلول­های حسی ایجاد می­شود. با این حال، دستگاه شنوایی مرکزی نیز در نتیجه چنین مواجهه­ای، آسیب می­بیند. هدف از مقاله­ی حاضر، بررسی تفصیلی اثرات ناشی از مواجهه کوتاه مدت با نویز بر دستگاه شنوایی محیطی و مرکزی است.
مواد و روش­ها
در مطالعه­ی پیش­رو، مقالات مختلف پیرامون آسیب شنوایی ناشی از مواجهه کوتاه مدت با نویز در بانک­های اطلاعاتی ScienceDirect، Google Scholar، Scopus، و PubMed بااستفاده از کلید واژه­های temporary threshold shift، permanent threshold shift، excitotoxicity، central auditory system و کلمات مرتبط در سال­های 1980 تا 2014 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
یافته­ها
مدت زمان کوتاهی پس از مواجهه با نویز، آستانه­های شنوایی به سطوح نزدیک به هنجار بر می­گردند، اما مطالعات بافت شناسی حاکی از آن است که سلول­های مویی حلزون، سیناپس ریبون، تارهای با درجه خودکاری پائین عصب شنوایی، هسته­های زیرقشری و قشر مغز در نتیجه­ی این مواجهه آسیب جدی می­بینند.
نتیجه­ گیری
در نتیجه مواجهه کوتاه مدت با نویز مراکز مختلفی در دستگاه شنوایی در معرض آسیب جدی قرار دارند و لذا پس از چنین مواجهه­ای، توجه به آستانه­های شنوایی محیطی به تنهایی کافی نیست. یکی از دلایل احتمالی کاهش حدت شنوایی و زمانی در دوران میانسالی، مواجهه مکرر و کوتاه مدت افراد با نویزهایی با شدت بالا یا پائین است که نهایتا باعث بروز مشکلات پردازش شنوایی و درک گفتاری در آنها می­گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Short-Term Effects of Noise on Auditory Pathways

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdollah Mousavi 1
  • Marzieh Amiri 2
  • Leila Faraji 3
1 Otorhinolaryngologist, Associate Professor, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD candidate of Audiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Audiology department, Tehran, Iran
3 Lecturer, Audiology Department, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and aims: Noise (unwanted sounds louder than 100 dB) affects hearing system in different ways. Although cochlea and its hair cells are the most affected sites, central auditory system can also be impaired by short-term exposure of noise. The aim of the present study was conducting a comprehensive evaluation of short-term exposure effects of noise on peripheral and central hearing system.
Materials and methods: To review the latest literature on short-term exposure noise impairment since 1980, articles were selected from Google scholar, PubMed, Sciencedirect, and Scopus databases using the following keywords: noise, temporary, permanent threshold shift, excitotoxicity, and central auditory system.
Results: Short term after noise exposure, hearing thresholds return to normal values but histologic findings showed that hair cells, ribbon synapses, low spontaneous rate fibers, and subcortical and cortical areas may be affected seriously.
Conclusion: Different auditory centers can be affected by short-term noise exposure; therefore, after noise exposure, paying attention to peripheral thresholds is not sufficient. One of the probable reasons of reduced auditory and temporal acuity in elderly people is frequent and short-term noise exposure that can finally produce hearing processing and speech perception problems.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Temporary threshold shift
  • Permanent threshold shift
  • Excitotoxicity and central auditory system
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