تأثیر تمرین دستکاری بر دست‎‌برتری کودکان با اختلال‌های طیف اتیسم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد رفتارحرکتی، گرایش رشد و تکامل حرکتی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 دانشیار دانشگاه شیراز، بخش کودکان استثنایی دانشکده علوم تربیتی، شیراز، ایران

3 استادیار دانشگاه شیراز، دانشکده علوم تربیتی، بخش تربیت بدنی، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

اختلال‌های طیف اتیسم، اختلال‎های شناختی و عصبی-رفتاری بوده و شامل سه ویژگی اصلی اختلال در اجتماعی شدن، اختلال در ارتباطات کلامی و غیرکلامی و الگوهای محدود و تکراری رفتار می‌باشد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر تمرین دستکاری بر دست‌برتری دانش‌آموزان با اختلال‌های طیف اتیسم انجام شد.
مواد و روشها
روش پژوهشی تجربی با طرح پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل همه‌ی دانش‌آموزان 7 تا 14 ساله با اختلال‌های طیف اتیسم شهر شیراز در سال تحصیلی 94-93 بود؛ پس از مشخص شدن مدرسه توسط اداره آموزش و پرورش، از کلیه دانش‌آموزان 7 تا 14 ساله‌ی این مدرسه پیش‌آزمون گرفته شد، سپس 20 نفر (5 دختر و 15 پسر) از این افراد که دارای ملاک پژوهش بودند، به‌عنوان نمونه انتخاب و به‌صورت تصادفی به دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل تقسیم شدند. گروه آزمایش مداخله تمرینات دستکاری را در 24 جلسه دریافت کردند درحالی‌که گروه کنترل فقط فعالیت‎های رایج در مدرسه را انجام می‎دادند. در پایان برای هر دو گروه پس‌آزمون اجرا شد. از پرسش­نامه دست‌برتری ادینبورگ برای سنجش دست‌برتری استفاده شد.
یافتهها
تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل کوواریانس نشان داد که میانگین دست‌برتری در گروه آزمایش به‌طور معناداری افزایش یافته است (05/0P≤).
نتیجهگیری
یافته‌ها نشان داد که تمرینات دستکاری دست‌برتری دانش‌آموزان با اختلال‌های طیف اتیسم را بهبود می‌بخشد. بنابراین پیشنهاد می‌شود با طراحی روش­های مناسب و اجرای تمرینات دستکاری جهت بهبود دست‌برتری دانش‌آموزان مبتلا به اختلال‌های طیف اتیسم اقدام شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Manipulation Training on Handedness in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeinab Zeinali 1
  • Ghorban Hemmati Alamdarlou 2
  • Fatemeh Pasand 3
1 MSc in Motor Behavior. Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
2 Department of Physical Education, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
3 Department of Physical Education, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Autism spectrum disorders are cognitive and neurobehavioral disorders where have three main features: socialization disorders, impairment of verbal and nonverbal communications, and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of manipulation training on handedness in children with autism spectrum disorders.
Materials and Methods: The present study was an experimental investigation using a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The statistical population of the research included all 7 to 14 -year-old students with autism spectrum disorders in Shiraz in the academic year 2014-2015. After selection of the school by the exceptive education office, the pretest was administered to all students in this school who were 7 to 14 years old. A total of 20 students (5 girls and 15 boys) who met the research criterion were then chosen as participants and were randomly divided into either the experimental group or the control group. The experimental group received manipulation training over 24 sessions, while the control group only performed common activities in the school. At the end of the treatment, post-test was administered to both groups. To assess handedness, the Edinburgh handedness inventory scale was used.
Results: Covariance analysis indicated that there was a significant increase in the mean scores for handedness in the experimental group (p ≤ 0.05).
Conclusion: Our findings indicated that manipulation training improved handedness in children with autism spectrum disorders. Therefore, it is suggested that the design and implementation of appropriate manipulation trainings be used in improving handedness in students with autism spectrum disorder.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • manipulation training
  • handedness
  • Student
  • Spectrum Disorders
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