عوامل خطرساز و محافظ رشد کودکان

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه روان شناسی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد روان شناسی، گروه روان شناسی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
سال­های اول زندگی از اهمیت ویژه­ای برخوردار است، زیرا آنچه در دوران کودکی اتفاق می­افتد در طول زندگی تأثیرات عمده­ای بر سلامت فیزیکی و روانی خواهد داشت، بنابراین هدف پژوهش حاضر، ارائه خلاصه­ای از عوامل خطرساز و محافظ متداولی است که رشد کودکان را تحت تأثیر قرار می­دهد.
مواد و روش‌‌ها
در پژوهش مروری حاضر، برخی مباحث مطرح­شده مرتبط با عوامل خطرساز و محافظ رشد کودک، با استفاده از منایع اطلاعاتی Scopus، Springer، ScienceDirect و جستجوگر Google از سال­های 1980 تا 2016 و با به­کارگیری کلمات کلیدی عوامل خطرساز، عوامل محافظ، رشد بهنجار، کودک، آسیب­شناسی روانی، مشکلات رفتاری و مشکلات هیجانی جستجو و مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
نتیجه ­گیری
از بارداری تا دوران کودکیکیفیت روابط کودکان با بزرگسال­ها و مراقبانشان و تمام محیط­هایی که کودکان در آن زندگی می­کنند و یاد می­گیرند، تأثیر قابل توجهی بر رشد شناختی، هیجانی و اجتماعی آنها خواهد داشت، بنابراین لازم است تا دولت­ها، سازمان­های بهداشتی و خانواده­ها محیط­های امن، حمایتگر و روابط باثباتی که کودکان به آنها احتباج دارند را فراهم آورند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Risk and Protective Factors in Children’s Development

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Amiri 1
  • Zahra Sadat Hosseini 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 M.A of Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Early years of life are of great importance, because what happens during childhood affects mental and physical health during life. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to briefly present protective and risk factors affecting children’s growth.
Materials and Methods: In the present review study, some mentioned issues related to child protective and risk factors were searched and explored in Scopus, Springer, ScienceDirect databases as well as Google search engine for publications between 1980-2016 using risk factors, protective factors, normal growth, child, mental pathology, behavioral issues, and emotional issues keywords.
Conclusion: In the period between infancy and childhood, the quality of children's relation with their parents and caretakers, and all the environments in which they live and learn, has significant effects on their cognitive, emotional, and social growth. Therefore, it is essential that governments, health organizations, and families provide a secure supportive environment and also stable relationships that children need.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Risk factors
  • Protective Factors
  • Development
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