رشد مهارت تعریف واژه در کودکان: یک مقاله مروری

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه گفتاردرمانی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکترای گفتاردرمانی، گروه گفتاردرمانی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشکدۀ روان شناسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
در مطالعات زبانی، جهت بررسی نحوه ی سازماندهی مفاهیم در واژگان ذهنی و نیز چگونگی رشد معنای کلمه از تکلیف تعریف واژه استفاده می شود. هدف از مطالعه حاضر، مرور نتایج تحقیقاتی است که روند رشد مفاهیم و سازماندهی آنها را با استفاده از تکلیف تعریف واژه بررسی کرده اند.
مواد و روش ها
با استفاده از کلیدواژه های Word Definition, Definitional Skills, Children مقالات منتش شده در این مورد، در پایگاه های داده ای معتبر همچون Science Direct Springer,Google Scholar, PubMed, ASHAو بانک های اطلاعاتی داخل کشور در بازه زمانی سال های 1965 تا 2017 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
نتیجه گیری
در تکلیف تعریف واژه از کودک خواسته می شود واژه ای را تعریف کند. پاسخ هایی که در این تکلیف بیان می شود، بر اساس صورت و محتوا نمره دهی می شود. سن، آگاهی فرازبانی و داشتن سواد، عوامل مؤثر در ارائۀ بهترین نوع تعریف هستند. با افزایش سن، روند رشد تعریف اسامی از پاسخ های عینی و عملکردی به سمت پاسخ های انتزاعی تر و مفهومی تر پیش رفته و میزان استفاده از اصطلاحات سرطبقه ای افزایش می یابد. چنین گذاری نشان دهنده ی این است که با افزایش سن، مفاهیم به صورت سلسله مراتبی و شبکه‌ای از ارتباطات سازماندهی می شوند و سرطبقه با سطوح پایین تر ارتباط دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Development of Word Definition Skill in Children: A Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tahereh Sima Shirazi 1
  • Maryam Malekian 2
  • Talieh Zarifian 1
  • Mehdi Dastjerdi Kazemi 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Speech Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Phd student in Speech Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Allame Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: In linguistic studies, the word definition task is used for surveying organization of concepts in the mental lexicon. The aim of the present study was to review the literature related to the developmental processing of concepts and organization of them using word definition task.
Materials and methods: Published articles on the subject of the development of word’s definition in children were surveyed using the folowing keywords: word definition, definitional skills, and children within the timeframe of 1965-2014. Databases of ScienceDirect, Springer, GoogleScholar, Elsevier, PubMed, ASHA, and related Iranian studies were used.
Conclusion: In the word definition task, the children were asked to define words. The answers expressed in this task are scored based on content and form. Age, literacy, and meta linguistic awareness are effective factors at presenting the best kind of definition. As the age increases, noun definitions are developed from functional and concrete responses into more abstract and conceptual responses, and also using superordinate terms increases. Increased use of super ordinate terms in definitions indicates that by increasing the age, concepts are organized into hierarchies of connections and superordinates have connection with subordinates.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Development
  • Word Definition
  • Child
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