احساس تنهایی، استقلال و هویت در نوجوانان ناشنوا

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد مشاوره توانبخشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار مرکز تحقیقات توانبخشی اعصاب اطفال، گروه کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

3 کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت آموزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
نوجوانی به عنوان دوره تغییرات سریع در بسیاری از جنبه­ها مانند جسمی، شناختی و اجتماعی در نظر گرفته شده است. نوجوانان ناشنوا در یک کشمکش و تقلا برای کسب هویت، استقلال و بهبود سیر تکاملی خودشکوفایی، با دشواری­ها و پیچیدگی­های زیادی مواجه هستند. در حالی که نگرش­های غالبی و سوگیرانه به ناشنوا باعث می­شود آنها به عنوان یک ناشنوا و نه به عنوان یک دختر یا پسر نوجوان/جوان در نظر گرفته شوند. مقاله حاضر به بررسی و مرور مسائل متعددی می­پردازد که زندگی افراد نوجوان ناشنوا را تحت تأثیر قرار می­دهد، از جمله هویت، استقلال و احساس تنهایی.
مواد و روش ها
در مطالعه مروری حاضر سعی شد مطالعات پژوهشی درباره مسائلی که یک نوجوان ناشنوا در دوران بلوغ تجربه می­کند، مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. پژوهش­های فارسی­زبان و انگلیسی­زبان در خصوص مسائل نوجوانان ناشنوا از سال 1981  تاکنون از طریق موتورهای جستجویSID، SAGE، WILEY، SCOPUS، SCIENCE DIRECT، EMERALD، ERIC PUBMED مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. واژه­های کلیدی که در سایت­ها مورد جستجو قرار گرفت شامل شنوایی، ناشنوایی، اختلالات شنوایی، نقص شنوایی و واژه­های نوجوانی، جوانی، بلوغ و واژه­های مرتبط با مسائل نوجوانان شامل: هویت، استقلال، احساس تنهایی، خود­پنداره می­باشد.
یافته ­ها
بررسی مطالعات نشان داد عوامل بسیاری در مسأله هویت، استقلال و احساس تنهایی نوجوانان ناشنوا مؤثرند که به منظور تسهیل گذر از دوره نوجوانی و پیشگیری و کاهش مشکلات و مسائل روانی-اجتماعی نوجوانان ناشنوا باید در جست­و­جوی راه­کارهای ضروری باشیم.
نتیجه­ گیری
با انجام پژوهش­های هدفمندانه­تر و جمع­آوری اطلاعات می­توان شکاف­ها و خلأهای اطلاعاتی را آشکار و برنامه­های پژوهشی آینده که می­تواند باعث بهبود رشد مطلوب در نوجوانان ناشنوا شود را فراهم ساخت. تصمیمات والدین برای استفاده از کاشت حلزون/سمعک، نوع مدرسه، انتخاب نوع روابط، ارتباط مناسب در خانه و داشتن گروهی که فرد بتواند خود را با آن هماهنگ نماید، می­تواند به نوجوان ناشنوا هویت بخشد و احساسات منفی او را به حداقل برساند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Loneliness, Independence, and Identity in Deaf Adolescents

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Zeynab Mousavi 1
  • Guita Movallali 2
  • Nasrin Mousavi 3
1 Department of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: .Adolescence has been considered as an era with rapid changes in so many aspects of life, like corporal, cognitive, and social aspects. The hearing impaired teenagers face a lot of complications in the struggle to gain identity, independence, and developmental self-actualization. Deaf people mostly face a biased interaction with their society and, as a result, instead of being considered teenagers with special needs, they are considered as deaf disabled people. The present paper is an attempt to address different parameters which affect the life of deaf adolescents including identity, independence, and loneliness.
Materials and Method: We investigated most of the studies which were conducted on challenges of deaf teenagers during their adolescence. Both English and Farsi papers were collected and investigated since 1981 using search engines SID, SAGE, WILEY, SCOPUS, SCIENCE DIRECT, EMERALD, and ERIC PUBMED. In so doing, the following keywords were used: hearing, deafness, hearing disorders, hearing loss, adolescence, adulthood, puberty, identity, independence, and loneliness.
Results: Different parameters can affect the identity, independence, and the loneliness of the deaf teenagers which should be investigated to first prevent and then minimize their problems and psycho-social issues to facilitate their growth.
Conclusion: By conducting more goal oriented studies and collecting more data, we can gain more information, so better programs can be set for the future of the deaf teenagers. Parents’ decision on using cochlear implant or hearing aids, choosing an appropriate school, access to effective communication inside and outside the home, having a supporting group with which the deaf teenager can coordinate themselves, and etc. can all be powerful means by which a deaf teenager can develop a meaningful  identity and reduce possible negative effects of deafness.
 
Keywords: 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deaf Adolescents
  • Loneliness
  • Independence
  • Identity
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