طراحی ابزار سنجش نیاز به خدمات آموزشی و توانبخشی دانش آموزان دچار کم شنوایی مدارس تلفیقی مقطع ابتدایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه آموزشی مدیریت توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

2 مرکز تحقیقات توانبخشی اعصاب اطفال، گروه آموزشی مدیریت توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

3 گزوه آموزشی آمار حیاتی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

4 دکترای شنوایی شناسی، استادیار، گروه آموزشی شنوایی شناسی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
دانش­آموزان کم‌شنوا نیازهای گسترده آموزشی و توانبخشی دارند و هدف از پژوهش حاضر طراحی ابزار سنجش نیاز به خدمات آموزشی و توانبخشی دانش­آموزان دچار کم­شنوایی مدارس تلفیقی مقطع ابتدایی بود.
مواد و روش‌ها
نسخه اولیه ابزار بر اساس مرور چهار ابزاری که در سایر کشورها برای سنجش نیازهای توانبخشی و آموزشی دانش­آموزان دچار کم­شنوایی و ناشنوایی طراحی شده بودند، ساخته شد. در تعیین روایی صوری و محتوایی نظر 14 نفر از اساتید و صاحب‌نظران کسب شد. برای تعیین وضوح متن، همبستگی درونی و پایایی آزمون-بازآزمون، از 51 دانش­آموز دچار کم­شنوایی در مدارس تلفیقی ابتدایی و معلمین شهرهای اسلامشهر، رباط کریم، قرچک و ورامین خواسته شد بخش­های مرتبط از پرسش­نامه را تکمیل کنند. برای تعیین روایی محتوایی، اندکس روایی محتوای به روش لاوشه و برای تعیین همبستگی درونی، ضریب آلفای کرونباخ و برای تعیین پایایی آزمون-بازآزمون، ضریب همبستگی درون­رده­ای محاسبه شد.
یافته‌ها
ابزار در قالب دو بخش دانش­آموزْ-پاسخ و معلمْ-پاسخ با مجموع 35 سؤال در 6 زیرمقیاس ساخته شد. روایی صوری توسط اساتید و صاحب‌نظران تایید شد. شاخص نسبت روایی محتوایی سؤالات بالای 71/0 بود و شاخص روایی محتوایی ابزار 93/0 بود. آلفای کرونباخ در زیرمقیاس‌های نیازهای توانبخشی شنوایی، گفتار، روان­شناسی، نیازهای آموزشی، شیوه دانش‌آموز در حل مشکلات ادراک و حل مشکلات سمعک به ترتیب برابر با 83/0، 84/0، 82/0، 85/0، 3/0 و 79/0 به دست آمد. در محاسبه پایایی آزمون-بازآزمون، ضریب همبستگی درون­رده­ای هر یک از زیرمقیاس‌ها، بیش از 94/0 بود.
نتیجه‌گیری
ابزار سنجش نیاز به خدمات آموزشی و توانبخشی دانش­آموزان دچار کم­شنوایی مدارس تلفیقی مقطع ابتدایی، ابزاری روا و پایا است و پس از تعیین نقاط برش آن می‌توان از این ابزار در تعیین نیازهای آموزشی و توانبخشی این کودکان استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developing a Rehabilitation and Educational Needs Assessment Tool for Mainstreamed Primary School Students with Hearing Loss

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Babaee 1
  • Nikta Hatamizadeh 2
  • Samaneh Hosseinzadeh 3
  • Saeideh Mehrkian4 Mehrkian 4
1 MSc in Rehabilitation Management, Department of Rehabilitation Management, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 MD, Pediatrician, MPH, Associate Professor, Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Department of Rehabilitation Management, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 PhD in Biostatistics, Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 PhD in Audiology, Assistant Professor, Department of Audiology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Students with special needs might face a variety of educational and rehabilitation needs. The present study was conducted to develop a rehabilitation and educational needs assessment tool for mainstreamed primary school students with hearing loss.
Materials and Methods: The first draft of the tool was designed according to a review of four tools designed for assessment of rehabilitation and educational needs for hearing impaired and deaf students in other countries. A total of 14 experts were invited and their viewpoints were obtained to assess the face and content validity of the instrument. To determine the clarity of the text, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, 51 mainstreamed primary school students with hearing loss in the cities of Eslamshahr, Robat Karim, Qarchak, and Varamin as well as their teachers were asked to complete related parts of the questionnaire. Lawasche Method was used to calculate Content Validity Index. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to examine internal consistency, and test-retest reliability was examined using calculating Intra-class Correlation Coefficient.
Results: The tool was designed in two parts; ‘student replying’ and ‘teacher replying’ with 35 questions in six subscales. The face validity was confirmed by the experts’ opinion. Content Validity Ratios of all questions were more than 0.71 and Content Validity Index was 0.93. Cronbach's alpha in subscales of needs for rehabilitation of hearing, speech, psychology, educational needs, self- advocacy in cognitive problems, and self- advocacy in hearing aids were 0.831, 0.840, 0,819, 0.851, 0.823, and 0.785, respectively. In calculating test-retest reliability, Intra-class Correlation Coefficients scores in all sub-scales were more than 0.940.
Conclusion: Rehabilitation and educational needs assessment tool for mainstreamed primary school students with hearing loss is a valid and reliable tooland after determining cut of points, it can be used in determining the needs of mainstreamed primary school students with hearing loss.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Assessment Tool
  • Mainstream
  • Student
  • Hearing loss
  • Rehabilitation
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