مقایسه الگوی استفاده از زمان کودکان 7 تا 12 ساله دچار فلج مغزی و همسالان بهنجارشان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد کاردرمانی، گروه کاردرمانی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

2 دکترای کاردرمانی، گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم سلامتی، دانشگاه کویت، مرکز تحقیقات توانبخشی اعصاب اطفال، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکترای کاردرمانی، گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، دانشیار و عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

4 دکترای کاردرمانی، گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، استادیار و عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، تهران، ایران

5 دانشجوی دکترای کاردرمانی، گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، دانشکده توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

6 دکترای آمار زیستی، گروه آموزشی آمار و کامپیوتر، استادیار و عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
الگوی استفاده از زمان، یک شاخه­ی تعریف­شده در کاردرمانی و مطالعات علم کار است. به نظر می­رسد که کودکان، جمعیت در خطر عدم توازن کاری باشند که زمان کمتری را در فعالیت­های همراه با تحرک صرف می­کنند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، مقایسه­ی الگوی استفاده از زمان در کودکان دچار فلج مغزی با کودکان بهنجار است.
مواد و روش­ ها
مطالعه حاضر از نوع تحلیلی، مقطعی-مقایسه­ای بود. 28 کودک هنجار و 28 کودک دچار فلج مغزی که از نظر سن، جنس و وضعیت اجتماعی و اقتصادی همسان شده بودند، در 2 روز تعطیل و غیرتعطیل بررسی شدند. جمع­آوری اطلاعات با استفاده از گاه­نگار زمان، یرسش­نامه اطلاعات دموگرافیک، سیستم طبقه­بندی حرکات درشت و سیستم طبقه­بندی توانایی دستی صورت گرفت. از آزمون t مستقل، برای تحلیل داده­ها در SPSS22، استفاده گردید.
یافته ها
آنالیز آماری، تفاوت معناداری را در حوزه­های استراحت وخواب، تحصیل و بازی در روز غیرتعطیل، تفریح در روز تعطیل و فعالیت­های روزمره­ی زندگی در هر دو روز تعطیل و غیرتعطیل (05/0<P) نشان داد. کودکان دچار فلج مغزی در حوزه­ی فعالیت­های روزمره­ی زندگی نیازمند صرف زمان زیادی هستند و در حوزه­های خواب و بازی و تفریح، زمان کمتری را صرف می­کنند، اما در سایر حوزه­ها تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نشد (05/0<P).
نتیجه­ گیری
مطالعه حاضر نشان داد کودکان دچار فلج مغزی در برخی از حوزه­های کاری نیازمند صرف زمان بیشتری هستند. افزایش مشارکت کودکان دچار فلج مغزی در حیطه­های فعالیت­های روزمره­ی زندگی، تحصیل، خواب، بازی و تفریح نیازمند توجه بیشتر به موضوع استفاده از زمان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Patterns of Time Use between 7-12 Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy and Children with Typical Development

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nahid Zare 1
  • Mehdi Rassafiani 2
  • Hossein Sortiji 3
  • Nazila Akbarfahimi 4
  • Moslem Dehghanizadeh 5
  • Akbar Biglarian 6
1 MS Student in Occupational Therapy, University of Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD in Occupational Therapy, Occupational Therapy Department, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Kuwait University, Kuwait.
3 Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Assistant Professor of Occupational Therapy, University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Occupational Therapy, Tehran, Iran
6 Assistant Professor , PhD in Biostatistic, Department of Biostatistics and Computer, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Pattern of time use refers to a branch of social science and science studies in occupational therapy and occupational science that focuses on "What was it?" and "Why do we use time?" Children's growth is the result of a set of their experiences. Study of how to use the time helps us to understand these children’s experiences. A balance among different areas of occupation is also very critical to support this growth and provides an opportunity to grow wider life skills for mental health, and physical well-being. It appears that children are at the risk of imbalance in their occupation within which they spend less time in activities associated with the movement.  The aim of the present study was to investigate the activity patterns of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) compared to those with typical development using a use-of-time approach.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional design study was carried out on 28 children with CP and 28 typically developed children who were matched for age, sex, and socio-economic status. Participants were interviewed using a time use diary. Independent t-test and analysis of variance were run to analyze the values obtained in SPSS22.
Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in sleeping and playing as well as education and play areas on weekdays, leisure activities on holidays, and everyday life activities on both weekends and holidays (P < 0.05), but in other areas, there was no significant difference (P> 0.05). Children with CP were observed to spend more time on the activities of daily living and leisure; they also found to spend less time on play and sleep (P>0/05), yet there were no significant differences in other areas between the two groups.
Conclusion: By and large, the activity patterns of children with CP were observed to be similar to those of their Typically Developed peers. The results highlight the activities of daily living, in children with CP, which can an area for future interventions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Time Use Pattern
  • children
  • Cerebral palsy
  1. Mohammadpour M, Rassafiani M, Ahmadi Kahjugh M, Behnia F, Haghgoo HA. Comparing time use in mothers with autistic child and mothers with healthy child. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2014 May 21:182-92.##
  2. Ahmadi  Kahjugh M,  Rassafiani M. Comparing the patterns of time use and satisfaction of time management among mothers of children with cerebral palsy and mothers of healthy children. Tehran: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; 1391. ##
  3. Ahmadi Kahjugh M, Rassafiani M, Hoseini SA, Sourtiji H , et al. Comparing the patterns of time use and satisfaction of time management among mothers of children with cerebral palsy and mothers of healthy children. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2012;1(1): 7-10. ##
  4. Jalili N, Godarzi M, Rassafiani M, Haghgoo H, Dalvand H, Farzi M. The influenced factors on quality of life of mothers of children with severe cerebral palsy: A survey study. Modern Rehabilitation. 2013;7(3): 7-40. ##
  5. Poulsen AA, Ziviani JM. Can I play too? Physical activity engagement of children with developmental coordination disorders. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2004;71(2):100-7. ##
  6. Hosseini SA, Mohammadian F, Hosseini SMS, Sourtiji H, et al. Effectiveness of ICF-based modified constraint induced movement therapy on hand functions in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2012;(1) ##
  7. Maher CA, Williams MT, Olds T, Lane AE. Physical and sedentary activity in adolescents with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2007;49(6): 7-450. ##
  8. Shikako-Thomas K, Majnemer A, Law M, Lach L. Determinants of participation in leisure activities in children and youth with cerebral palsy: systematic review. Physical & occupational therapy in pediatrics. 2008;28(2): 69-155. ##
  9. Majnemer A, Shevell M, Law M, Birnbaum R, Chilingaryan G, Rosenbaum P, et al. Participation and enjoyment of leisure activities in school‐aged children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2008;50(10): 8 -751. ##

10. Voorman JM, Dallmeijer AJ, Van Eck M, Schuengel C, Becher JG. Social functioning and communication in children with cerebral palsy: association with disease characteristics and personal and environmental factors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2010;52(5): 7-441. ##

11. Bickham DS, Blood EA, Walls CE, Shrier LA, Rich M. Characteristics of screen media use associated with higher BMI in young adolescents. Pediatrics. 2013;131(5): 41-935.v

12. Hofferth SL. Home media and children’s achievement and behavior. Child development. 2010;81(5):1598-1619. ##

13. Lee SJ, Bartolic S, Vandewater EA. Predicting children's media use in the USA: Differences in cross‐sectional and longitudinal analysis. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 2009;27(1): 43 -123.v

14. Hofferth SL, Curtin SC. Leisure time activities in middle childhood.  What Do Children Need to Flourish? Springer; 2005:95-110. ##

15. Farnworth L. Time use and leisure occupations of young offenders. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2000;54(3): 25-315.v

16. Foley LS, Maddison R, Jiang Y, Marsh S, Olds T, Ridley K. Presleep activities and time of sleep onset in children. Pediatrics. 2013;131(2): 82 -276.v

17. Yu M-L, Ziviani JM, Haynes M. Sleep, structured and social time use and young Australian children? physical activity. Health Promotion Journal of Australia. 2011;22(3): 9-203. ##

18. Basner M, Fomberstein KM, Razavi FM, Banks S, William JH, Rosa RR, et al. American time use survey: sleep time and its relationship to waking activities. SLEEP-NEW YORK THEN WESTCHESTER. 2007; 30(9):10-85##

19. Hunt E, McKay EA. A scoping review of time-use research in occupational therapy and occupational science. Scandinavian journal of occupational therapy. 2015;22(1):1-12. ##

20. Sharifi A, Kamali M, Chabok A. Social needs of people with cerebral palsy: a qualitative study with phenomenology method. Journal of Modern Rehabilitation. 2014;8(2):21-30. ##

21. Juster FT, Ono H, Stafford FP. An assessment of alternative measures of time use. Sociological Methodology. 2003;33(1):19-54. ##

22. Association AOT. Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain & process2014:4-5##

23. Association AOT. Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain & process: Amer Occupational Therapy Assn; 2002. ##

24. Riyahi A, Rassafiani M, Akbarfahimi N, Karimloo M, et al. Test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities of the of Manual Ability Classification System (MACS)-Farsi version in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2012;1(1): 11-203. ##

25. Dehghan L, Abdolvahab M, Bagheri H, Dalvand H. Inter rater reliability of Persian version of Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded and Revised in patients with cerebral palsy. Daneshvar. 2011;18(91):37-44. ##

26. Maher C, Kernot J, Olds T. Time use patterns in ambulatory adolescents with cerebral palsy. Child: care, health and development. 2013;39(3): 11-404. ##

27. Østensjø S, Carlberg EB, Vøllestad NK. The use and impact of assistive devices and other environmental modifications on everyday activities and care in young children with cerebral palsy. Disability and Rehabilitation. 2005;27(14): 61 -849. ##

28. Mazurek MO, Shattuck PT, Wagner M, Cooper BP. Prevalence and correlates of screen-based media use among youths with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2012;42(8):1757-1767. ##

29. Howcroft J, Klejman S, Fehlings D, Wright V, Zabjek K, Andrysek J, et al. Active video game play in children with cerebral palsy: potential for physical activity promotion and rehabilitation therapies. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2012;93(8):1448-56. ##

30. M. Shoghy, S. Khangary, F. Farmany, Hossaini F. Sleep Pattern In School - Age Children, Residents Of The West Area In Tehran. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2005;18(43): 9 -83. ##

31. Dutt R, Roduta-Roberts M, Brown CA. Sleep and children with cerebral palsy: A review of current evidence and environmental non-pharmacological interventions. Children. 2015;2(1):78-88. ##

32. Beckung E, Hagberg G. Neuroimpairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions in children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2002;44(5):309-16. ##

33. Law M, King G, King S, Kertoy M, Hurley P, Rosenbaum P, et al. Patterns of participation in recreational and leisure activities among children with complex physical disabilities. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2006;48(05): 42-337. ##

34. mms C, Reilly S, Carlin J, Dodd K. Diversity of participation in children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2008;50(5): 9-363. ##