تأثیر سطوح متفاوت تداخل زمینه ای در تمرین (تمرین مسدود، تمرین تصادفی) بر کارکردهای حسی-حرکتی در کودکان مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشد حرکتی، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 استاد، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری یادگیری حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
اختلال هماهنگی رشدی یکی از شایع­ترین اختلالات تأثیرگذار بر کودکان در سنین 5 تا 8 ساله می­باشد. هدف از مطالعه حاضر بررسی تأثیر تمرینات با تداخل زمینه­ای متفاوت (تمرینات تصادفی و مسدود) بر کارکرد­های حسی-حرکتی در کودکان مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی 5 تا 9 ساله شهر مشهد بود.
مواد و روش ­ها
از بین تمامی کودکان مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی در شهر مشهد، 45 نفر با استفاده از آزمون­های غربالگری (پرسش­نامه اختلال هماهنگی رشدی، بهره هوشی) انتخاب و پس از تکمیل کردن پرسش­نامه عصب روان‌شناختی کانرز به عنوان پیش­آزمون، به صورت تصادفی به سه گروه 15 نفره (گروه تمرینات تصادفی، گروه تمرینات مسدود و گروه کنترل) تقسیم شدند. در ادامه گروه­های تجربی حاضر در تحقیق تمرینات با تداخل زمینه­ای متفاوت را برای 8 هفته و هر هفته 3 جلسه 45 دقیقه­ای انجام دادند و در انتها دوباره از کلیه افراد به وسیله پرسش­نامه عصب روان‌شناختی کانرز، پس­آزمون به عمل آمد. برای بررسی نرمال بودن داده­های تحقیق از آزمون شاپیرو-ویلک و برای تعیین تفاوت­های درون­گروهی و بین گروهی به ترتیب از آزمون t همبسته و آزمون تحلیل کواریانس استفاده شد.
یافته­ ها
نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان داد بین تفاضل میانگین نمرات پیش­آزمون-پس­آزمون دو گروه آزمایش در متغیر­های تحقیق تفاوت معنادار وجود دارد. با این حال هیچ­گونه تفاوت معناداری بین تفاضل میانگین نمرات پیش­آزمون و پس­آزمون گروه کنترل مشاهده نشد. همچنین یافته­های تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که بین دو گروه با تمرینات تداخل زمینه­ای متفاوت، تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد و گروه تمرین تصادفی بهبود بیشتری در کارکردهای حسی-حرکتی بعد از تمرینات پیدا کردند (04/0P=).
نتیجه ­گیری
بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده می­توان نتیجه گرفت که تمرینات با تداخل زمینه­ای بیشتر می­تواند موجب بهبود بیشتر کارکرد­های حسی-حرکتی در کودکان مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Levels of Contextual Interference of Training (Blocked and Random Practice) on Sensory-Motor Functions in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadi Moradi 1
  • Mehdi Sohrabi 2
  • Hamid Reza Taheri 2
  • Jalal Dehghanizade 3
1 Ph.D student of Motor Development, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
3 Ph.D student of Motor Learning, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) is one of the most common disorders affecting 5-8 year-old children. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of training and different background interference (blocked and random practice) on sensory-motor functions in children with growth coordination disorder aged 6-9 years in Mashhad city.
Materials and Methods: Among all children with growth coordination disorder in Mashhad, 45 were selected using screening tests (Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnare, IQ). After completing Conner neuropsychological testing questionnaire as pre-test, they were randomly divided into three groups of 15: block practice, random practice, and control groups. The three groups performed the relvant trainings for 8 weeks (3 sessions per week, each session 45 minutes). Then, post-test, i.e. Connors neuropsychological questionnaire was administered. Shapiro Wilk test was used to check the normality and t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were run to determine intra-group and inter-group differences, respectively.
Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores in the two groups' study variables. However, no significant difference was observed between the mean scores of pre-test and post-test for control group. The findings also showed that there is a significant difference between the two groups with different training contextualinterferences. Also, the training group with more background interference was observed to have further improvement in sensory-motor functions after training (P=0/04).
Conclusion: However, it can be concluded that training with more background interference can further improve sensory-motor functions in children with developmental coordination disorder.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Children with developmental coordination disorder
  • Contextualinterference
  • Random practice
  • Constant practice
  • Sensory-motor functions
  1. Abedi A, Malekpour MP, Moulavi H, Arizihr Amiri SH. Compare Neuropsychological Features young Children With Neuropsychological/ development learning disabilities and normal, preschool. Res Exceptional Children. 2007; 2(10): 38-48. [In Persian].##
  2. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub; 2013 May 22. ##
  3. Zwicker JG, Missiuna C, Harris SR, Boyd LA. Developmental coordination disorder: a review and update. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 2012 Nov 30;16(6):573-81. ##
  4. Cairney J, Veldhuizen S, King-Dowling S, Faught BE, Hay J. Tracking cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in children with and without motor coordination problems. Journal of science and medicine in sport. 2017 Apr 30;20(4):380-5. ##
  5. Soleimani R, Kousha M, Zarrabi H, Tavafzadeh-haghi SM, Jalali MM. The Impact of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance in Children with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Clinical Trial. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2017 Jan 29;41(2). ##
  6. Caldwell K, Harrison M, Adams M, Triplett NT. Effect of Pilates and taiji quan training on self-efficacy, sleep quality, mood, and physical performance of college students. Journal of bodywork and movement therapies. 2009 Apr 30;13(2):155-63. ##
  7. Asonitou K, Koutsouki D, Kourtessis T, Charitou S. Motor and cognitive performance differences between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Research in developmental disabilities. 2012 Aug 31;33(4):996-1005. ##
  8. Penelope L. Updating the principles of the Pilates method—Part 2. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2002 Apr 1;6(2):94-101. ##
  9. Venetsanou F, Kambas A, Aggeloussis N, Fatouros I, Taxildaris K. Motor assessment of preschool aged children: A preliminary investigation of the validity of the Bruininks–Oseretsky test of motor proficiency–Short form. Human movement science. 2009 Aug 31;28(4):543-50. ##
  10. Yu J, Sit CH, Burnett A, Capio CM, Ha AS, Huang WY. Effects of fundamental movement skills training on children with developmental coordination disorder. Adapted physical activity quarterly. 2016 Apr;33(2):134-55.v
  11. Cairney J, Veldhuizen S, King-Dowling S, Faught BE, Hay J. Tracking cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in children with and without motor coordination problems. Journal of science and medicine in sport. 2017 Apr 30;20(4):380-5. ##
  12. Caçola P, Romero M, Ibana M, Chuang J. Effects of two distinct group motor skill interventions in psychological and motor skills of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A pilot study. Disability and health journal. 2016 Jan 31;9(1):172-8. ##
  13. Merbah S, Meulemans T. Learning a motor skill: Effects of blocked versus random practice. A review. Psychologica Belgica. 2011;51:15-48. ##
 

  1. Zetou E, Michalopoulou M, Giazitzi K, Kioumourtzoglou E. Contextual interference effects in learning volleyball skills. Perceptual and motor skills. 2007 Jun;104(3):995-1004. ##
  2. Magill RA. Motor learning and control. Concepts and Applications,. 2011.v
  3. Wambaugh JL, Nessler C, Wright S, Mauszycki SC, DeLong C, Berggren K, Bailey DJ. Effects of Blocked and Random Practice Schedule on Outcomes of Sound Production Treatment for Acquired Apraxia of Speech: Results of a Group Investigation. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2017 Jun 22;60(6S):1739-51. ##
  4. Fazeli D, Taheri H, Saberi Kakhki A. Random Versus Blocked Practice to Enhance Mental Representation in Golf Putting. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2017 Jun;124(3):674-88. ##
  5. Jones K, Croot K. The Effect of Blocked, Random and Mixed Practice Schedules on Speech Motor Learning of Tongue Twisters in Unimpaired Speakers. Motor control. 2016 Oct;20(4):350-79. ##
  6. Porter JM. Systematically increasing contextual interference is beneficial for learning novel motor skills (Doctoral dissertation). ##
  7. Russell DM, Newell KM. How persistent and general is the contextual interference effect?. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 2007 Sep 1;78(4):318-27. ##
  8. Kurahashi A, Leming K, Carnahan H, Dubrowski A. Effects of expertise, practice and contextual interference on adaptations to visuo-motor misalignment. Studies in health technology and informatics. 2008;132:225-9. ##
  9. Sugiyama M, Araki M, Choshi K. Order of a ‘uniform random’presentation on contextual interference in a serial tracking task. Perceptual and motor skills. 2006 Jun;102(3):839-54. ##
23. Kadesjo B, Gillberg C. Developmental coordination disorder in Swedish 7-year-old children. Journal of the American Academy of child & adolescent psychiatry. 1999 Jul 31;38(7):820-8.v

  1. Abedi A, Malekpour MP, Moulavi H, Arizihr Amiri SH. Compare Neuropsychological Features young Children With Neuropsychological/ development learning disabilities and normal, preschool. Res Exceptional Children. 2007; 2(10): 38-48. [In Persian]. ##
  2. Wilson PH. Practitioner review: approaches to assessment and treatment of children with DCD: an evaluative review. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry. 2005 Aug 1;46(8):806-23. ##
  3. Wilson BN, Crawford SG, Green D, Roberts G, Aylott A, Kaplan BJ. Psychometric properties of the revised developmental coordination disorder questionnaire. Physical & occupational therapy in pediatrics. 2009 Jan 1;29(2):182-202. ##
  4. Afsordeh Bakhshayesh R, Salehi H, Movahedi A, Ghasemi V. The log version of the psychometric properties of coordination impaired motor development in children 6-11 years old. Journal of Psychology Special, (2010); 1(4). [In Persian]. ##
  5. Dehghan  M,  Karimei N, Tagipourjavan AA, Hasan NattajJelodar F, Zaidabadi F. The effectiveness of rhythmic movement games (weighted) on the rate of executive function in children with neuropsychological learning disabilities. J Learning Disabil 2012; 2(1/53-77). [In Persian]. ##
  6. Noordstar, J. J., van der Net, J., Voerman, L., Helders, P. J., & Jongmans, M. J. (2017). The effect of an integrated perceived competence and motor intervention in children with developmental coordination disorder. Research in developmental disabilities, 60, 162-175. ##
  7. Tsai, C. L., Wang, C. H., & Tseng, Y. T. (2012). Effects of exercise intervention on event-related potential and task performance indices of attention networks in children with developmental coordination disorder. Brain and cognition, 79(1), 12-22. ##
  8. Pless, M., & Carlsson, M. (2000). Effects of motor skill intervention on developmental coordination disorder: A meta-analysis. Adapted physical activity quarterly, 17(4), 381-401. ##
  9. Fong SSM, Tsang WWN, Ng GYF. Taekwondo training improves sensory organization and balance control in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2012 1//;33(1):85-95. ##
  10. Ahmadi Kahjoogh M, Hoseini SA, Rassafiani M, Mohammadian F. Developmental coordination disorder: diagnosis, evaluations, and treatments. J Res Rehabil Sci 2013; 9(3): 561-9. [In Persian]. ##
  11. Miller, L., Polatajko, H., Missiuna, C., Mandich, A., & Macnab, J. (2001). A pilot trial of a cognitive treatment for children with developmental coordination disorder. Human movement science, 20(1), 183-210. ##
  12. Bo J, Lee CM. Motor skill learning in children with developmental coordination disorder. Research in developmental disabilities. 2013 Jun 30;34(6):2047-55. ##
  13. Broadbent, D.P, Causer, Ford, P.R, and Mark Williams, A. "Contextual Interference Effect in Perceptual-Cognitive Skills Training". Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2015, p: 65. ##
  14. Pauwels L, Swinnen SP, Beets IA. Contextual interference in complex bimanual skill learning leads to better skill persistence. PloS one. 2014 Jun 24;9(6):e100906. ##
  15. Lee TD, Swinnen SP, Serrien DJ. Cognitive effort and motor learning. Quest. 1994 Aug 1;46(3):328-44. ##