آیا ارتباطی بین ورزش و استئوآرتریت وجود دارد؟

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دکترای فیزیوتراپی، استاد گروه آسیب شناسی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حرکات اصلاحی، گروه آسیب شناسی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
هدف از انجام تحقیق حاضر بررسی ارتباط بین ورزش در سطوح قهرمانی و تفریحی با استئوآرتریت بود.
مواد و روش ­ها
برای انجام تحقیق مروری حاضر، جستجوی پیشینه تحقیق از طریق موتورهای جستجوگر الکترونیک در سه دهه گذشته (از سال 1987 تا 2017) در پایگاه PubMed و Sportdiscus انجام شد. برای جست­و­جو از واژه­های کلیدی “Osteoarthritis”، “Athletes”،“Elite”  و “sports” به همراه مترادف­های مرتبط استفاده گردید. همچنین برای جست­و­جوی مقالات فارسی از پایگاه مجلات کشور(MAGIRAN) ، پایگاه اطلاعات علمی جهاد دانشگاهی  (SID)و پایگاه استنادی علوم جهان اسلام(ISC) استفاده شد.
یافته ­ها
با در نظر گرفتن معیارهای ورود به تحقیق حاضر، 29 مقاله (شامل 28 مقاله انگلیسی و 1 مقاله فارسی) انتخاب شد. از بین این مقالات، 13 مقاله مربوط به ارتباط استئوآرتریت و ورزش تفریحی و 15 مقاله مربوط به بررسی استئوآرتریت در بین ورزشکاران نخبه بود. از 13 مقاله مربوط به ورزش تفریحی، 5 مقاله آینده­نگر به بررسی استئوآرتریت مفاصل زانو و ران در بین دوندگان بزرگسال و 8 مقاله از نوع مورد-شاهدی به بررسی استئوآرتریت مفاصل زانو و ران در بین سایر ورزشکاران پرداخته بود. از 16 مقاله مربوط به ورزش قهرمانی، 7 مقاله، استئوآرتریت مفاصل اندام تحتانی در بین فوتبالیست­های نخبه بازنشسته، 5 مقاله استئوآرتریت مفاصل اندام تحتانی در بین ورزشکاران نخبه بازنشسته رشته­های مختلف ورزشی، 1 مقاله استئوآرتریت مفصل زانو در بین پینگ­پنگ­بازان نخبه بازنشسته، 1 مقاله استئوآرتریت مفصل شانه در بین تنیس­بازان نخبه بازنشسته، 1 مقاله استئوآرتریت مفصل مچ پا در بین والیبالیست­های نخبه بازنشسته و 1 مقاله استئوآرتریت دوندگان نخبه را بررسی کرده بودند.
نتیجه­ گیری
فعالیت­های ورزشی-تفریحی در حد متوسط، صرف نظر از اینکه ورزش مورد نظر چه باشد، عامل خطرسازی برای استئوآرتریت رادیوگرافیک و بالینی نمی­باشد و به دلیل مزایای غیرقابل انکار ورزش، افراد را باید به سمت ورزش تشویق کرد. در بین جمعیت عموم و ورزشکاران نخبه به نظر می­رسد استئوآرتریت رادیوگرافیک با رشته­های ورزشی تیمی و قدرتی (فوتبال، راگبی، کشتی، وزنه­برداری و ورزش­های راکتی) در شرایطی که تمرینات و رقابت­ها به شکل شدیدی انجام شود، بیشتر رخ می­دهد. همچنین به نظر نمی­رسد که ورزشکاران استقامتی نخبه در خطر استئوآرتریت قرار داشته باشند. خطر استئوآرتریت با رشته­های ورزشی دارای ضربه­های شدید و تکراری افزایش پیدا می­کند که این خطر به شکل قابل ملاحظه­ای با آسیب مفصلی در ارتباط است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Is There a Relationship between Sport and Osteoarthritis?

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Asghar Norasteh 1
  • Hamed Mahmoudi 2
  • Sara Emami 2
  • Elham Hajihosseini 2
1 Professor of Physiotherapy, Department of Corrective Exercises and Sport Injuries, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 PhD Student of Corrective Exercises, Department of Corrective Exercises and Sport Injuries, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: To investigate the relationship between recreational and professional sports and osteoarthritis
Materials and Methods: To carry out the present review article, we conducted a literature search in PubMed and Sportdiscus databases in the past three decades (1987 to 2017). The keywords used in the search process included ‘Osteoarthritis’, ‘Athletes’ and ‘Elite’, and ‘Sports’ with their related synonyms.  Also, to search Persian articles, we used MAGIRAN, SID, and ISC databases.
Results: Considering the inclusion criteria, 29 articles (28 English and 1 Persian) were selected: 13 articles were about the relationship between osteoarthritis and recreational sport and 16 articles investigated the osteoarthritis among elite athletes. Out of 13 articles on recreational sports, 5 prospective studies investigated OA among adult runners and 8 case control studies investigated OA in the knee and hip joint of other athletes. Out of 16 articles addressing professional sports, 7 articles investigated OA of lower extremity joints in former elite soccer players, 1 article investigated knee joint OA in former table tennis players, 1 article inspected shoulder joint among retired tennis players, 1 article investigated ankle joint OA in former volleyball players, and 1 article investigated OA among elite runners.
Conclusion: Recreational sport activities with moderate intensity, regardless of the sport, is not a risk factor for radiological and clinical OA and due to undeniable advantages of athletic activities, people should be encouraged to pursue them. Radiographic OA seems to increase among general population and elite athletes in certain team and power sports (football, rugby, wrestling, weightlifting, and racket sports) if the conditioning and competitions are intensive. Furthermore, it does not seem that elite endurance athletes are at the risk of OA. The risk of OA increases with repetitive and high-impact sports. This risk is highly associated with joint injury.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Osteoarthritis
  • Sports
  • Professional athlete
  • Recreational athlete
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