اثربخشی برنامه حرکتی منتخب بر حافظه کاری، توجه و مهارت های حرکتی دانش آموزان دارای اختلالات یادگیری ریاضی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری رشد و تکامل حرکتی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار رفتارحرکتی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
امروزه اختلالات یادگیری مهم­ترین علت عملکرد ضعف تحصیلی محسوب می­شود و هر ساله تعداد زیادی از دانش­آموزان به این علت در فراگیری مطالب درسی خصوصا در ریاضیات دچار مشکل می­شوند. هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر بررسی اثربخشی برنامه منتخب حرکتی بر حافظه کاری، توجه و مهارت­های حرکتی دانش­آموزان دختر دارای اختلالات یادگیری ریاضی بود.
مواد و روش­ها
در تحقیق حاضر با استفاده از طرح تحقیق پیش­آزمون-پس­آزمون و به صورت نیمه­تجربی، از بین کلیه کودکان دختر مبتلا به اختلالات یادگیری 12-8 ساله مدارس ابتدایی شهرستان استهبان، 30 نفر از دانش­آموزان دختر مبتلا به اختلال یادگیری ریاضی با استفاده از نمونه­گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند که 15 نفر در گروه مداخله و 15 نفر در گروه کنترل قرار گرفتند. ابزارهای مورد استفاده شامل پرسش­نامه محقق­ساخته، آزمون هوشی ریون، آزمون ریاضی کی مت، مقیاس حافظه عددی وکسلر (فراخنای ارقام)، آزمون عملکرد پیوسته و آزمون تبحر حرکتی برونینکس–اوزرتسکی بود. برنامه منتخب حرکتی (اسپارک) که شامل فعالیت­های تقویتی، بازی و ورزش برای کودکان است به مدت 24 جلسه (8 هفته هر هفته 3 جلسه) اجرا شد. به منظور بررسی یافته­ها از روش آماری تحلیل واریانس چندمتغییره استفاده گردید.
یافته­ ها
یافته ­ها نشان داد که بین گروه مداخله و گروه کنترل دانش ­آموزان دارای اختلال یادگیری ریاضی در حافظه کاری، توجه و مهارت­ های حرکتی درشت و ضعیف تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد (001/0(p<؛ بدین معنی که حافظه کاری، توجه و مهارت­ های حرکتی در گروه مداخله بعد از برنامه منتخب حرکتی بهبود یافته است.
نتیجه­ گیری
به نظر می‌رسد برنامه منتخب حرکتی (اسپارک) مورد استفاده می­تواند باعث بهبود حافظه کاری، توجه و مهارت ­های حرکتی در کودکان دختر دارای اختلال یادگیری ریاضی شود. توصیه می­شود درمانگران در کنار سایر مداخلات درمانی از این تمرینات در کودکان دارای اختلال یادگیری استفاده نمایند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effectiveness of selected motor program on working memory, attention and motor skills of students with math learning disorders

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fahime Arsalani 1
  • Mahmoud Sheikh 2
  • Rasool HemaytTalab 3
1 PhD, Department of Physical Education, Tehran University, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Physical Education, Tehran University, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Department of Physical Education, Tehran University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Todays learning disorders are the most important causes of poor academic performance and every year many students find it difficult to learn content of some of the textbooks, especially mathematics. The main aim of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of the selected motor program on working memory, attention, and motor skills of female students with math learning disorders.
Materials and Methods: In the current study, pre-test and post-test designwas used as a semi-experimental study and 30 female students with math learning disorder were selected as random sampling method from the statistical society that included all 8-12 year-old girls with learning disorders from primary school in the city of Estahban who were divided into two groups of intervention group and control (15 each). The instruments used were a researcher-made questionnaire, Raven’s IQ test, KMat math test, Wechsler numerical memory scale (Digit Span), Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and Bruninks-Oseretsky Motor proficiency test. The selected motor program (SPARC), which includes activities for reinforcement, play, and exercise for children, was conducted for 24 sessions (Eight weeks, three sessions per week). The normality of collected data was first studied using Shapiro-wilk test and to study the effect of independent variables on dependent variables, the analysis of multivariate variance was used.
Results: The results of the study showed that there was a significant difference between experimental and control groups among students with math learning disorder in working memory, attention, and motor skills (P<0.001). This means that working memory, attention, and motor skills in the experimental group improved after the selected motor program.
Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that the chosen motor program (SPARC) can improve the working memory, attention, and motor skills in children with math learning disorders. It is recommended that therapists, along with other therapeutic interventions, use these exercises for children with learning disabilities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Selected motor program
  • math learning disorder
  • Working memory
  • attention
  • motor skills
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