رابطه بین عملکرد تعادلی با ظرفیت حافظه کاری در افراد با و بدون سندرم داون

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد همدان، همدان، ایران.

2 گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد همدان، همدان، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
مشکلات تعادلی و شناختی منجر به کاهش تحرک در بیماران سندرم داون می­گردد. بنابراین هدف از مطالعه حاضر، بررسی عملکرد تعادلی و رابطه آن با ظرفیت حافظه کاری در کودکان با و بدون سندرم داون بود.
مواد و روش­ ها
در مطالعه حاضر 20 نفر از افراد دارای سندرم داون با 20 فرد سالم که از لحاظ سن و جنس و سایر ویژگی­های دموگرافیک مشابه با آن‌ها بودند، مورد آزمون قرار گرفتند. عملکرد تعادل ایستا و پویای افراد به‌ وسیله آزمون ایستادن روی پای برتر با چشم باز و بسته، آزمون عملکردی کشش دست‌ها، آزمون راه رفتن تاندم، آزمون زمان رفتن و برگشتن، آزمون چرخش 360 درجه و آزمون تعادل Y اندازه­گیری شد. ظرفیت حافظه کاری آزمودنی­ها توسط خرده­مقیاس شمارش روبه­جلو و معکوس مورد سنجش واقع گردید. از آزمون تی تست مستقل و آزمون همبستگی پیرسون در سطح معناداری 05/0>p استفاده شد.
یافته­ ها
نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان داد همبستگی معناداری بین حافظه کاری و برخی از فاکتورهای تعادل وجود دارد (05/0>p). همچنین عملکرد تعادلی بیماران سندرم داون در آزمون­های انجام­گرفته به طور معناداری کمتر از افراد سالم بود. ظرفیت حافظه کاری در بیماران سندرم داون اختلاف معناداری با افراد سالم نشان داد (05/0>p).
نتیجه­ گیری
نتایج نشان‌دهنده تأثیر عملکرد شناختی بر کنترل قامت بود. بنابراین علاوه بر تقویت سیستم عضلانی و حسی، مداخلات شناختی نیز می­توانند در بهبود تعادل تأثیرگذار باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relationship between Balance Performance and Working Memory Capacity in Individuals with and without Down Syndrome

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohaddeseh Ghobadi 1
  • Shahram Naderi 2
  • Elaheh Azadian 2
1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran.
2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Balance and cognitive problems lead to reduced mobility in Down syndrome patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the balance features and its relationship with memory capacity in children with and without Down syndrome.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, 20 participants with Down syndrome and 20 healthy individuals identical in age and sex and other demographic characteristics were tested. Participants' static and dynamic balance performances were measured using test of standing on the dominant leg with open and closed eyes, functional reach test, tandem walking test, time up and go test, 360 degree rotation test, and Y balance test. Also, each participant's capacity of working memory was measured via the forward and backward counting. Independent t-test and Pearson correlation test were used at the significance level of p < 0.05.
Results: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between working memory and some of the balance factors (p < 0.05). Also, the balance performance of Down syndrome patients was significantly lower than that of healthy participants. The working memory capacity in the patients with syndrome showed a significant difference with healthy participants (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The results showed that the cognitive function can affect postural control. Therefore, in addition to reinforcement of the muscular and sensory system, cognitive interventions can also be effective in improving balance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Down syndrome
  • Static balance
  • dynamic Balance
  • Working memory capacity
1.   Mégarbané A, Ravel A, Mircher C, Sturtz F, Grattau Y, Rethoré M-O, et al. The 50th anniversary of the discovery of trisomy 21: the past, present, and future of research and treatment of Down syndrome. Genetics in Medicine. 2009;11(9):611.##

2.   Alexandrov P, Percy M, Lukiw WJ. Chromosome 21-Encoded microRNAs (mRNAs): impact on Down’s syndrome and trisomy-21 linked disease. Cellular and molecular neurobiology. 2018;38(3):769-74. ##

3.   Weeks DJ, Chua R, Elliott D. Perceptual-motor behavior in Down syndrome: Human Kinetics; 2000. ##

4.   Rigoldi C, Galli M, Mainardi L, Crivellini M, Albertini G. Postural control in children, teenagers and adults with Down syndrome. Research in developmental disabilities. 2011;32(1):170-5. ##

5.   Virji-Babul N, Kerns K, Zhou E, Kapur A, Shiffrar M. Perceptual-motor deficits in children with Down syndrome: implications for intervention. Down Syndrome Research and Practice. 2006;10(2):74-82. ##

6.   Gupta S, Rao Bk, Kumaran S. Effect of strength and balance training in children with Down’s syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical rehabilitation. 2011;25(5):425-32. ##

7.   Oelwein PL. Teaching Reading to Children with Down Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Teachers. Topics in Down Syndrome: ERIC; 1995. ##

8.   Comblain A. Working memory in Down syndrome: Training the rehearsal strategy. Down Syndrome Research and Practice. 1994;2(3):123-6. ##

9.   Jarrold C, Baddeley A. Short-term memory in Down syndrome: Applying the working memory model. Down Syndrome Research and Practice. 2001;7(1):17-23. ##

10. Baddeley A, Jarrold C. Working memory and Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2007;51(12):925-31. ##

11. Pritchard A, Kalback S, McCurdy M, Capone GT. Executive functions among youth with Down Syndrome and co‐existing neurobehavioural disorders. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2015;59(12):1130-41##.

12. Villamonte R. Reliability of sixteen balance tests in individuals with down syndrome. 2009. ##

13. Verbecque E, Lobo Da Costa PH, Vereeck L, Hallemans A. Psychometric properties of functional balance tests in children: a literature review. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2015;57(6):521-9. ##

14. Era P, Sainio P, Koskinen S, Haavisto P, Vaara M, Aromaa A. Postural balance in a random sample of 7,979 subjects aged 30 years and over. Gerontology. 2006;52(4):204-13. ##

15. Lisman P, Nadelen M, Hildebrand E, Leppert K, de la Motte S. Functional movement screen and Y-Balance test scores across levels of American football players. Biology of Sport. 2018 Sep;35(3):253. ##

16. Azadian E, Torbati HRT, Kakhki ARS, Farahpour N. The effect of dual task and executive training on pattern of gait in older adults with balance impairment: A Randomized controlled trial. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2016;62:83-9. ##

17. Van Iersel MB, Verbeek ALM, Bloem BR, Munneke M, Esselink RAJ, Olde Rikkert MGM. Frail elderly patients with dementia go too fast. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 2006;77(7):874-6. ##

18. Valera EM, Seidman LJ. Neurobiology of Attention‐Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschoolers. Infants & Young Children. 2006;19(2):94-108. ##

19. Vuillerme N, Marin L, Debû B. Assessment of static postural control in teenagers with Down syndrome. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 2001;18(4):417-33. ##

20. Hausdorff JM, Doniger GM, Springer S, Yogev G, Simon ES, Giladi N. A common cognitive profile in elderly fallers and in patients with Parkinson's disease: the prominence of impaired executive function and attention. Experimental aging research. 2006;32(4):411-29. ##

21. Hiyamizu M, Morioka S, Shomoto K, Shimada T. Effects of dual task balance training on dual task performance in elderly people: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical rehabilitation. 2012;26(1):58-67. ##

22. Uemura K, Yamada M, Nagai K, Tateuchi H, Mori S, Tanaka B, et al. Effects of dual-task switch exercise on gait and gait initiation performance in older adults: preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. 2012;54(2):e167-e71. ##

23. Rahmani p, Shahrokhi h. The Study of Static and Dynamic Balance in Mentally Retarded Female Students with and without Down Syndrome (DS). Journal of Sport Medicine. 2011;2(2):97-113. ##

24. Rahmani P, Shahrokhi H, Daneshmandi H. The investigation of spinal abnormalities & balance and relation between them in patients with Down syndrome. Modern Rehabilitation. 2014;8(4):63-9. ##

25. Bahiraei S, Daneshmandi H. The Study of relationship between structural profiles and postural control in individual with Down syndrome. Journal of Practical Studies of Biosciences in Sport (JPSBS). 2014;2(4):21-32. ##

26. Eagleton M, Iams A, McDowell J, Morrison R, Evans CL. The effects of strength training on gait in adolescents with cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy. 2004;16(1):22-30. ##

27. Tinetti ME, Baker DI, McAvay G, Claus EB, Garrett P, Gottschalk M, et al. A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community. New England Journal of Medicine. 1994;331(13):821-7. ##