بررسی تاثیر مداخلات مبتنی بر حس بر رفتارانطباقی کودکان مبتلا به اختلالات طیف اتیسم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد کاردرمانی، دانشکده توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، دانشکده توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکترای آمار زیستی، دانشکده پیراپزشکی، گروه آمار زیستی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
بین بیش­پاسخ­دهی حسی در کودکان اتیسم و مشکلات توجهی رابطه مثبتی وجود دارد. همچنین کم­پاسخ­دهی حسی با مشکلاتی در بروز رفتارهای تطابقی، مهارت­های ارتباطی و مهارت­های اجتماعی همراه است. هدف از مطالعه حاضر بررسی مداخلات مبتنی بر حس بر رفتار انطباقی کودکان اتیسم با عملکرد بالا بود.
مواد و روش­ ها
مطالعه حاضر از نوع کارآزمایی بالینی تصادفی بود که بر روی 50 کودک با اختلال طیف اتیسم که به صورت نمونه در دسترس انتخاب شدند، انجام گرفت. جهت جمع­آوری اطلاعات از ابزار ارزیابی پرسش­نامه رفتار تطابقی واینلند استفاده شد. اﯾﻦ ارزﯾﺎﺑﯽ­ﻫﺎ در دو ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ زﻣﺎﻧﯽ (ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺷﺮوع ﻣﺪاﺧﻠﻪ و ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﭘﺲ از اﺗﻤﺎم ﻣﺪاﺧﻠﻪ) اﻧﺠﺎم گرفت. گروه کنترل، مداخلات رایج کاردرمانی را دریافت کردند و گروه مداخله علاوه بر مداخلات رایج از پروتکل حسی این مطالعه نیز بهره­مند شدند. داده­های حاصل از پرسش­نامه­ها با استفاده از نرم­افزار SPSS و آزمون­های Paired T Test مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت.
یافته ­ها
بر اساس یافته­های به­دست­آمده از آنالیز آماری بین گروهی، بین میانگین نمرات رفتار تطابقی کودکان مبتلا به طیف اتیسم در دو گروه تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نشد (قلمرو مهارت­های ارتباطی (575/0P=)، مهارت­های روزمره زندگی (702/0P=)، اجتماعی شدن (449/0P=) و رفتار ناسازگارانه (605/0P=).
نتیجه ­گیری
مداخله­ی مبتنی بر حس بر روی رفتار انطباقی کودکان اتیسم تاثیر نداشته است و با توجه به این که رفتار تطابقی به حس­های ثانویه (بویایی، چشایی، شنوایی) مرتبط است، پیشنهاد می­شود در مداخلات کوتاه­مدت این متغیر هم مد نظر قرار داده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Sensory-Based Interventions on Adaptive Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

نویسندگان [English]

  • Safoora Azizi 1
  • Parvin Raji 2
  • Tahmine Mosavi 2
  • Mehdi Alizadeh 3
  • Elham Faghihzadeh 4
1 MSc Student in Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor.Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
3 PhD in Cognitive Neuroscience, Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 PhD candidate in Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics, Paramedical School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Autism Spectrum Disorders are described as anomalies of social interactions, and having repetitious and stereotype behaviors. There is a positive correlation between hyper sensitivity and attention disorders in the diagnosed children. Also, there is a problem with hypo sensitivity in these children in the sense that they are not capable of performing adaptive behavior. Also, they lack interaction skills and social interactions. The present study aimed to investigate the intervention of the sensory based intervention of the high function autistic children on their adaptive behavior.
Materials and Methods: The present randomized clinical trial was conducted on 50 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders who were selected from an available sample. The data was collected using Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales questionnaire. The evaluations were conducted both before and right after the interference. The control group received the normal therapy whereas the experimental group received this therapy together with the privileges of the sensory protocol of the present study. The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS and running Paired T-Test.
Results: The findings of the study indicated that there was no significant meaningful difference between the performances of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the two groups regarding the interactive skills (P=0.575), daily living skills (P=0.702), socialization (P=0.449), and maladaptive behavior (P=0.605).
Conclusion: According to the results, the interference had no effect on the adaptive behavior of the Autistic children. Considering the fact that adaptive behavior is related to secondary senses (olfactory, taste and hearing), it is suggested that these factors be taken into consideration, too.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sensory-Based Intervention
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Adaptive behavior
 

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