تاثیر موسیقی بر عملکردهای شناختی و درک گفتار: مقاله مروری

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 گروه شنوایی شناسی، دانشکده توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران ایران

2 کمیته پژوهشی دانشجویان، کارشناس ارشد شنوایی‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
موسیقی به دلیل ارتباط با بسیاری از فعالیت­های پیچیده مغزی مانند درک، شناخت، حافظه و  یادگیری واسطه­ای مناسب جهت مطالعه عملکردهای مختلف مغزی است. شناخت یکی از عملکردهای مهم سیستم مرکزی است که امروزه مورد توجه بسیاری از محققان قرار دارد. نتایج برخی مطالعات حاکی از آن است که احتمالا فراگیری موسیقی بتواند سبب تقویت و تکامل مسیرهای عصبی مربوط به فرآیندهای شناختی گردد و تاثیر مثبتی بر درک گفتار به خصوص در شرایط نویزی و چالش­برانگیز داشته باشد. مطالعه­ی مروری حاضر کوشیده است که بر اساس پژوهش­های بالینی موجود تاثیر موسیقی بر عملکرد شناختی و درک گفتار را مورد بررسی قرار دهد.
مواد و روش ­ها
با جستجو در بانک­های اطلاعاتی ,Google Scholar ,PubMed ,Science Direct ,Scoppus SID و با استفاده از کلیدواژه­های شناخت، حافظه، موسیقی، توجه و درک گفتار، مقالات پژوهشی چاپ­شده در مجلات معتبر در بازه زمانی 18 ساله از سال 2000 میلادی تا 2018 مورد جستجو قرار گرفتند و در نهایت 38 مقاله مرتبط انتخاب و بررسی شد.
یافته ­ها
مرور مطالعات انجام­شده نشان داد که موسیقی تاثیر مثبت بر شناخت و اجزای شناختی از جمله حافظه، توجه و عملکردهای اجرایی، همچنین ادراک گفتار و اجزای آن مانند فورمنت­ها و هجاها دارد. همچنین نتایج مطالعاتی که عملکردهای شناختی و درک گفتار را به طور هم­زمان در موسقیدان­ها و غیرموسیقی­دان­ها بررسی کردند، نشان دادند موسیقی­دان­هایی که عملکرد شناختی بهتری داشتند، قابلیت درک گفتار بالاتری نیز، در شرایط نویزی دارند.
نتیجه­ گیری
غالب تحقیقات ارتباط مشخصی را بین فراگیری موسیقی و بهبود عملکردهای شناختی و درک گفتار نشان می­دهند. فراگیری نواختن موسیقی و آموزش خاص در سیستم شنوایی فقط شامل درک درست و تولید صدا نمی­باشد، بلکه ارتباط میان این اصوات است که می­تواند باعث تغییر در عملکرد شناختی شود. همچنین نواختن موسیقی باعث بهبود پردازش سیستم شنوایی و در نتیجه درک بهتر گفتار در موقعیت­های پیچیده­ی شنوایی می­گردد. در واقع به نظر می­رسد آموزش موسیقی تعامل بین پردازش­های ادراکی و شناختی رده بالا را افزایش می­دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Music on Cognition Function and Speech Perception: A Literature Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Mohammadzadeh 1
  • Ebtesam Sajjadi 2
1 Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti Medical sciences University, Tehran, Iran
2 Student Research Committee. MSc of Audiology. School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Music is related with many aspects of brain activity, such as perception, cognition, memory, and learning, thus it is an appropriate instrument to study cognition and function of various aspects of brain. Cognition is one of the important dimensions of central neural system that has recently attracted researchers. Previous studies have shown that learning music can probably reinforce and evolve neural tracks and has positive effects on speech perception, especially in noisy and challenging situations. The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of music on cognition function and speech perception based on the existing clinical researches.
Materials and Methods: Using keywords such as cognition, memory, music, and speech perception, five major databases, including, GoogleScholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scoppus, and SID were searched for relevant papers published between 2000-2018. The search resulted in selection of 38 relevant studies.
Results: Review of the studies showed that music has a positive effect on cognition and cognitive components such as memory, attention, and executive functions, as well as speech perception and its components, such as formants and syllables. Also, the results of the studies that examined cognitive functions and speech perception simultaneously in musicians and non-musicians showed that musicians with better cognitive function had better speech comprehension capabilities in noisy situations.
Conclusion: Most of the studies indicated that there is a relationship among music, improvement of cognition functions, and speech perception. Playing music is not only production and perception of sounds, but also there is a correlation between these sounds and it can alter cognitive functions. Playing music can also cause improvement in auditory processing and it results in better perception of speech in complex auditory situations. In fact, it seems that playing music enhances the cooperation between high level of perception and cognitive processing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cognition
  • memory
  • music
  • attention
  • speech perception
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