بررسی حافظه کاری شنیداری-کلامی در زنان یائسه در محدوده سنی 50 تا 59 سال دارای شنوایی هنجار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کمیته پژوهشی دانشجویان، دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد شنوایی شناسی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

2 دکترای تخصصی شنوایی‌شناسی، استادیار گروه شنوایی شناسی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 گروه شنوایی شناسی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران ایران

4 کارشناس ارشد آمار زیستی، گروه علوم پایه، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

5 عضو هیئت علمی، گروه شنوایی‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی همدان، ایران

6 دانشجوی دکتری مشاوره توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
حافظه کاری شنیداری-کلامی توانایی یادگیری، نگهداری و به یادآوری هجاها یا کلمات گفتاری است. عوامل مختلفی مانند سن، جنسیت، تحصیلات و همچنین تغییر در ترشحات غدد درون­ریز مانند غدد جنسی می‌تواند بر میزان کسب امتیاز آزمون­های یادگیری و حافظه تاثیرگذار باشد. در مطالعه حاضر تاثیر یائسگی به علت ایجاد تغییرات ترشح هورمونی بر حافظه کاری زنان مورد توجه قرار گرفت.
مواد و روش ­ها
مطالعه توصیفی-تحلیلی حاضر بر روی 25 زن 50 تا 59 ساله با شنوایی هنجاری که دو سال یا بیشتر از یائسگی‌شان گذشته است، به روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس با استفاده از نسخه فارسی آزمون شنیداری-کلامی ری انجام شد. به منظور بررسی وضعیت توزیع داده­ها از آزمون شاپیرو-ویلک، بررسی ارتباط بین یادآوری فوری با یادآوری با تاخیر و یادآوری با تاخیر با بازشناسی از آزمون ویل کاکسون، بررسی معناداری بین مراحل 1 تا 5 از آزمون فریدمن و بررسی ارتباط بین سن، تحصیلات و نیز سال­های یائسگی با عملکرد افراد در آزمون از ضریب هبستگی اسپیرمن استفاده شد.
یافته­ ها
یافته‌های تحقیق حاضر نشان می‌دهد که بین امتیازات مراحل 1 تا 5 آزمون ری ارتباط معناداری مشاهده شد (p<0.01). بین حافظه تاخیری با امتیاز بازشناسی و نیز تحصیلات با برخی امتیازات ارتباط معنادار مشاهده شد (p<0.01).
نتیجه­ گیری
یائسگی در محدوده سنی 50 تا 59 سال تاثیری بر حافظه شنیداری-کلامی ندارد و به نظر می‌رسد سطح تحصیلات تاثیر بیشتری بر کسب میزان امتیازات آزمون ری در یک دهه از زندگی داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Auditory Verbal Working Memory Performance of 50 – 59 Year Old Menopause Women with Normal Hearing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marziyeh Sajadian 1
  • Hamid Jalilvand 2
  • Ali Mohammadzadeh 3
  • Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaee 4
  • Nasrin Gohari 5
  • Maryam Sajadian 6
1 Student Research Committee, MSc Student of Audiology, Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD, Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 MSc in Biostatistics, Basic Sciences Department, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
6 PhD. student Rehabilitation Counselor , University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences , Tehran , Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Auditory verbal working memory is defined as the ability to learn, retain, and recall verbal syllables or words. Various factors like age, gender, education, and change in endocrine secretions, such as gonads, can affect the acquisition of memory and learning test scores. In the present study, the effect of menopause on changes in hormonal secretion was studied on women's working memory. 
Materials and Methods: A descriptive-analytic study was performed on 25 menopause women, aged 50–59, with normal hearing and who had had their menopause during the past two years or more.  Sampling method was available sampling which was perfromed using the Persion version of the Rey auditory – verbal test. In order to investigate the status of data distribution we used Shapirovailk test, to examine the relationship between immediate recall and delayed recall and delayed recall, Wilcoxon test was run, to study the correlation between stages 1 to 5, Friedman test was used, and to investigate the relationship between age, education, and years of menopause, Spearman's correlation coefficient was run.
Results: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between the scores of trails 1 to 5. There was also a significant relationship between delayed memory with recognition score and also between education and some scores of memory test.
Conclusion: Menopause in the age range of 50 to 59 years does not affect verbal auditory memory and it seems that the level of education will have a greater impact on the acquisition of scores in a decade of life.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Auditory-verbal working memory
  • rey learning test
  • women
  • menopause
1.   Best JR, Miller PH. A developmental perspective on executive function. Child development. 2010;81(6):1641-60.##

2.   Baddeley AD, Kopelman MD, Wilson BA. The handbook of memory disorders: John Wiley & Sons; 2003.

3.   Daneman M, Carpenter PA. Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior. 1980;19(4):450-66. ##

4.   Gathercole SE, Alloway TP. Working memory and classroom learning. Dyslexia Review. 2004;15:4-9. ##

5.   Baddeley A. Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of communication disorders. 2003;36(3):189-208. ##

6.   Eysenck MW, Brysbaert M. Fundamentals of cognition: Routledge; 2018. ##

7.   Jayakar R, King TZ, Morris R, Na S. Hippocampal volume and auditory attention on a verbal memory task with adult survivors of pediatric brain tumor. Neuropsychology. 2015;29(2):303. ##

8.   Smith EE, Jonides J, Marshuetz C, Koeppe RA. Components of verbal working memory: evidence from neuroimaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1998;95(3):876-82. ##

9.   Ryan JJ, Rosenberg SJ, Mittenberg W. Factor analysis of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. International Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology. 1984. ##

10. Schmidt M. Rey auditory verbal learning test: A handbook: Western Psychological Services Los Angeles, CA; 1996. ##

11. Bolla‐Wilson K, Bleecker ML. Influence of verbal intelligence, sex, age, and education on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Developmental Neuropsychology. 1986;2(3):203-11. ##

12. Lezak MD, Howieson DB, Loring DW, Fischer JS. Neuropsychological assessment: Oxford University Press, USA; 2004. ##

13. Query WT, Megran J. Age‐related norms for AVLT in a male patient population. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1983;39(1):136-8. ##

14. McMinn MR, Wiens AN, Crossen JR. Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test: Development of norms for healthy young adults. The Clinical Neuropsychologist. 1988;2(1):67-87. ##

15. Van Der Elst W, Van Boxtel MP, Van Breukelen GJ, Jolles J. Rey's verbal learning test: normative data for 1855 healthy participants aged 24–81 years and the influence of age, sex, education, and mode of presentation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 2005;11(3):290-302. ##

16. Bezdicek O, Stepankova H, Moták L, Axelrod BN, Woodard JL, Preiss M, et al. Czech version of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test: normative data. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition. 2014;21(6):693-721. ##

17. Kimura D, Clarke PG. Women's advantage on verbal memory is not restricted to concrete words. Psychological reports. 2002;91(3_suppl):1137-42. ##

18. Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA, Pugh KR, Fulbright RK, Skudlarski P, Mencl WE, et al. Effect of estrogen on brain activation patterns in postmenopausal women during working memory tasks. Jama. 1999;281(13):1197-202. ##

19. Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA, Pugh KR, Fulbright RK, Skudlarski P, Mencl WE, et al. Effect of estrogen on brain activation patterns in postmenopausal women during working memory tasks. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey. 2000;55(4):227-8. ##

20. Greene MM, Maher K, Holmes CS. Neuropsychological functioning of endocrinology disorders: gonadotropic hormones and corticosteroids.  Handbook of Medical Neuropsychology: Springer; 2010. p. 431-45. ##

21. Squire LR. Memory and the hippocampus: a synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans. Psychological review. 1992;99(2):195. ##

22. Barth C, Villringer A, Sacher J. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods. Frontiers in neuroscience. 2015;9:37. ##

23. Jafari Z, Steffen Moritz P, Zandi T, Kamrani A, Malyeri S. Psychometric properties of Persian version of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) among the elderly. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2010;16(1):56-64. ##

24. Kellogg RT. Fundamentals of cognitive psychology: Sage; 2011. ##

25. Teruya LC, Ortiz KZ, Minett TSC. Performance of normal adults on Rey Auditory Learning Test: a pilot study. Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria. 2009;67(2A):224-8. ##

26. Badcock JC, Dragović M, Dawson L, Jones R. Normative data for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in individuals with schizophrenia. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 2011;26(3):205-13. ##

27. Terasawa E, TIMIRAS PS. Electrical activity during the estrous cycle of the rat: cyclic changes in limbic structures. Endocrinology. 1968;83(2):207-16. ##

28. Ranganath C. Working memory for visual objects: complementary roles of inferior temporal, medial temporal, and prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience. 2006;139(1):277-89. ##

29. Gold JM, Carpenter C, Randolph C, Goldberg TE, Weinberger DR. Auditory working memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenia. Archives of general psychiatry. 1997;54(2):159-65. ##

30. Vakil E, Greenstein Y, Blachstein H. Normative data for composite scores for children and adults derived from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist. 2010;24(4):662-77. ##

31. Malloy-Diniz LF, Lasmar VAP, Gazinelli LdSR, Fuentes D, Salgado JV. The Rey auditory-verbal learning test: applicability for the Brazilian elderly population. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. 2007;29(4):324-9. ##

32. Speer P, Wersching H, Bruchmann S, Bracht D, Stehling C, Thielsch M, et al. Age-and gender-adjusted normative data for the German version of Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test from healthy subjects aged between 50 and 70 years. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology. 2014;36(1):32-42. ##

33. Mitrushina M, Boone KB, Razani J, D'Elia LF. Handbook of normative data for neuropsychological assessment: Oxford University Press; 2005. ##

34. Mohammadzadeh A, Borna A, SAFAVI NM, AKBARADEH BA. Comparison of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Results (Persian version) in Men and Women before Elderly. 2017. ##

35. Colom R, Abad FJ, Quiroga MÁ, Shih PC, Flores-Mendoza C. Working memory and intelligence are highly related constructs, but why? Intelligence. 2008;36(6):584-606. ##

36. Fuh JL, Wang SJ, Lu SR, Juang KD, Lee SJ. Alterations in cognitive function during the menopausal transition. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2003;51(3):431-2. ##