تأثیر تمرینات ثبات مرکزی بر مهارت های حرکتی درشت در دختران 8 سال دارای تأخیر در رشد حرکتی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد رفتار حرکتی، واحد علوم تحقیقات ، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران. ایران

3 استادیار گروه رفتار حرکتی پژوهشگاه علوم ورزشی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
ثبات مرکزی بدن و عملکرد زنجیره حرکتی برای ثبات و قابلیت عملکردی همه حرکات ضروری است. توانایی تولید نیرو برای انجام بسیاری از فعالیت­ها از طریق عضلات مرکزی بدن حاصل می­شود. تمرین­ های ورزشی که ناحیه مرکزی بدن را هدف قرار می­دهد، به عنوان یک روش نوین، می­تواند در انجام مهارت­های مختلف موثر باشد. در پژوهش حاضر تأثیر تمرینات ثبات مرکزی مبتنی بر بازی بر مهارت­های حرکتی درشت دختران 8 سال دارای تأخیر رشد حرکتی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت.
مواد و روش ­ها
پژوهش حاضر از نوع نیمه ­تجربی با طرح پیش ­آزمون-پس ­آزمون بود که در آن 20 نفر از دانش­آموزان دختر 8 سال (میانگین سنی 02/0±05/8) با تاخیر رشد حرکتی بر اساس آزمون رشد حرکتی درشت انتخاب و به طور تصادفی در گروه تجربی (10 نفر) و کنترل (10 نفر) جای گرفتند. گروه تجربی به­مدت 8 هفته (سه جلسه 45 دقیقه­ای در هفته) به تمرینات ثبات مرکزی پرداختند و گروه کنترل هیچ­گونه برنامه تمرینی را دریافت نکرد. پس از اتمام دوره هر دو گروه، آزمون مهارت­های حرکتی درشت را اجرا نمودند و داده­های به دست آمده با استفاده از تحلیل واریانس مرکب در سطح اطمینان 95 درصد مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت.
یافته­ ها
سطح مهارت­ های جابه ­جایی گروه تجربی در پس­ آزمون (42/2±90/18) نسبت به پیش­ آزمون (97/0±50/13) پیشرفت معنادار داشت و از سطح گروه کنترل در پس­آزمون (06/1±30/14) بهتر بود. این نتایج در خصوص مهارت­های کنترل شیء و بهره حرکتی درشت که از مجموع نمرات خرده ­مقیاس­های کنترل شیء و جابه ­جایی به دست آمده است  تکرار گردید؛ به طوری که سطح مهارت ­های کنترل شیء گروه تجربی در پس ­آزمون (84/1±40/18) نسبت به پیش ­آزمون (20/1±10/13) پیشرفت معناداری داشت و از سطح گروه کنترل در پس ­آزمون (25/1±30/14) بالاتر بود. همچنین، سطح بهره حرکتی گروه تجربی در پس ­آزمون (74/2±20/37) نسبت به پیش ­آزمون (49/1±60/26) پیشرفت معنادار نشان داد و از سطح بهره حرکتی گروه کنترل در پس­ آزمون (83/1±60/28) بهتر بود.
نتیجه­ گیری
بر اساس شواهد موجود، تمرینات ثبات مرکزی مبتنی بر بازی بر بهبود مهارت­ های حرکتی درشت دختران هشت سال دارای تاخیر رشد حرکتی موثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Core Stability Exercise on the Gross Motor Skills among 8-Year-Old Girls with Delayed Motor Development

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maral Sadat Mousavi 1
  • Maliheh Naeimikia 2
  • Saleh Rafiee 3
1 MA in Motor Behavior, Science Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant professor at Department of Motor Behavior, Sport Sciences Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant professor at Department of Motor Behavior, Sport Sciences Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: The core stability exercises, as a new training method, have a great influence on the muscles of the abdominal and lumbar regions, related to the childhood motor development. In the present study, the effect of core stability exercise on the gross motor skills
among 8-year-old girls with delayed motor development was studied.
Materials and Methods: A semi-experimental study with pre-test-post-test design was conducted on 20 female students (mean 8.05±0.02), selected based on the test of gross motor development scores measured via Ulrich test, and randomly assigned to experimental (n= 10) and control (n= 10) groups. The experimental group performed core stability exercises for eight weeks (three sessions of 45 minutes per week), and the control group did not receive any training program. After the training sessions, both groups performed the test of gross motor development and the data were analyzed using mixed analysis of variance at 95% confidence level.
Results: The results showed a significant improvement in locomotor skills subscale of experimental group in the post-test (18.90±2.42) compared to the pretest scores (13.50±0.97) and the control group post-test scores (14.30±1.06). The same results were obtained for object control skills subscale and motor quotient score, so the object control skills in experimental group in the post-test (18.48±1.84) improved significantly compared to the pretest (13.10±1.20) and it was significantly higher than the level of skills in the control group in the post-test (14.30 ± 1.25). Also, there was a significant improvement in motor quotient score of the experimental group in the post-test (37.20±2.74) compared to the pretest (26.66 ± 1.49), and it was significantly better than the level of motor quotient of the control group in the post-test (28.60±1.83).
Conclusion: Based on the evidence, play-based core stability exercises can improve gross motor skills in eight-year-old girls with delay motor development.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ulrich test
  • gross motor quotient
  • motor development
  • core stability exercises
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