گلوکوم و اختلالات روانپزشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسنده

دانشیار، عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده علوم توانبخشی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
گلوکوم یکی از شایع­ترین بیماری­های مزمن چشم است که به طور بالقوه می­تواند منجر به کوری دوطرفه گردد. این بیماری ممکن است بااختلالات روان­شناختی همراه باشد. هدف مطالعه حاضر ارزیابی ارتباط بین گلوکوم و اختلالات روان­پزشکی می­باشد.
مواد و روش­ ها
مطالعه حاضر به مرور مطالعات موجود در زمینه وجود اختلالات روان­پزشکی در بیماران مبتلا به گلوکوم بر اساس داده­های پایگاه­های اطلاعاتی تخصصی می­پردازد. در این راستا خلاصه و متن کامل مقالات مرتبط با موضوع مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
یافته­ ها
بررسی مقالات موجود نشان می­دهد که بیماران مبتلا به گلوکوم اغلب دارای اختلالات روان­پزشکی همراه شامل اضطراب و افسردگی هستند. شیوع  اضطراب و افسردگی در بیماران مبتلا به گلوکوم در کشورهای مختلف به ترتیب حدود 33-13 درصد و 57-10 درصد می­باشد. همچنین ارتباط بیماری آلزایمر و گلوکوم مزمن در مطالعات ناهمگن گزارش شده است. باید به این نکته توجه نمود که تفاوت در نتایج ممکن است به طراحی متفاوت مطالعات و اندازه نمونه­هاارتباط داشته باشد.
در ارتباط با صفات شخصیتی این بیماران سبک­های دفاعی نابالغ، الگوی کمال­گرایی، روان­رنجوری، تحریک­پذیری خودبیمارپنداری و الگوی رفتاری نوعA  گزارش شده است.
نتیجه­ گیری
در بیماری­های مزمن مثل گلوکوم فاکتورهای روان­شناختی شامل نقص حافظه، افسردگی، اضطراب، تیپ شخصیتی و اثرات جانبی داروها ارتباط نزدیکی به رعایت از دستورات پزشکی دارد. افزایش استفاده از مکانیسم­های نابالغ دفاعی، افسردگی و اضطراب با کاهش کیفیت زندگی در این بیماران همراه است. همچنین وجود تیپ رفتاری A همراه با روان­رنجوری بالا می­تواند باآسیب­پذیری برای گلوکوم در ارتباط باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Glaucoma and Psychiatric Disorders

نویسنده [English]

  • Parvin Dibajnia
Associate Professor, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Glaucoma is one of the most common chronic eye diseases that can potentially result in bilateral blindness, and may also be related to psychological disturbances. The purpose of the present study was evaluation of the relationship between glaucoma and psychiatric disorders.
Materials and Methods: In the current article,we reviewed the available articles on psychiatry disorders in patients with glaucoma based on specialized databases and identified articles based on their abstracts and full-texts.
Results: Evaluation of available articles revealed that patients with glaucoma often have coexisting psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The prevalence of anxiety and depression in glaucoma patients in different countries is approximately between 13-33% and 10-57%m respectively. Also, the association between Alzheimer's disease and chronic glaucoma is heterogeneous. It should be noted that the differences in results may be attributed to study design sand sample sizes. In connection with personality traits in glaucoma patients, immature defense style, perfectionistic pattern, neuroticism, hypochondriacal tendencies, irritability, and type A behavioral pattern are reported, as well.
Conclusion: According to the results,in chronic diseases such as glaucoma, psychological factors are closely related to medical guidelines. These factors include memory deficit, depression, anxiety, personality type, and side effects of the drugs. Increased use of immature defense mechanisms, and accompanying depression and anxiety have been associated with decreased quality of life in these patients. The existence of type A behavioral pattern with high neuroticism can provide vulnerability to glaucoma.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • glaucoma
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • depression
  • Anxiety
  • Personality
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