بیومکانیک شروع و پایان راه‌ رفتن با تأکید بر ابزار، سطح و اختلالات اسکلتی-عضلانی و عصبی: مقاله مروری سیستماتیک

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دکتری بیومکانیک ورزشی، گروه آسیب‎شناسی و بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت ‏بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد تمام گروه بیومکانیک و آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی و پژوهشکده علوم حرکتی ، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
یکی از رایج‌ترین فعالیت‌های حرکتی انسان راه ‌رفتن است که جزئی لاینفک از بسیاری از فعالیت‌های روزمره و ورزش‌های رقابتی و گروهی می‌باشد. شروع راه ‌رفتن، اولین گام پس از تغییر حالت از وضعیت ایستا به پویا و پایان راه ‌رفتن آخرین گام پیش از تغییر حالت از وضعیت پویا به ایستا می‌باشد. با توجه به اینکه نوع سطح و پوششی که فعالیت بدنی روی آن انجام می‏شود، همچنین سن، بیماری‎ها و اختلالات اسکلتی-عضلانی افراد در عملکرد بیومکانیکی آنها تغییر ایجاد می‏کند، به ‌نظر می‌رسد الگوی فعالیت عضلانی و پارامترهای بیومکانیکی شروع و پایان راه ‌رفتن نه‏تنها متفاوت از راه ‏رفتن معمولی است، بلکه تحت تاثیر شرایط فردی و سطوح مختلفی که حرکت روی آن صورت می‎پذیرد نیز تغییر می­کند. از سویی دیگر، عدم تعادل و سقوط افراد اغلب در شروع و پایان راه‌ رفتن اتفاق می‌افتد، شناخت پارامترهای کینماتیکی و کینتیکی شروع و پایان راه‌ رفتن اطلاعات سودمندی را جهت شناخت اختلالات این فاز از راه‌ رفتن و آسیب‌شناسی و اصلاح عملکرد فراهم می‌کند. هدف از مطالعه حاضر، مروری بر پژوهش‌هایی است که از اواخر قرن بیستم تاکنون پیرامون متغیرهای بیومکانیکی شروع و پایان راه‌ رفتن در شرایط و گروه‎های مختلف انجام شده است.
مواد و روش ­ها
جستجوی مقالات در پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی معتبر نظیر  Pub Med, Science Direct, Mendelyبا جستجوی کلمات کلیدی انجام گرفت. بیش از 300 مقاله پیرامون الگوی فعالیت عضلانی و پارامترهای بیومکانیکی شروع و پایان راه‏ رفتن یافت شد که پس از مطالعه و حذف مقالات با نتایج مشابه و مقالات مربوط به پروتکل‌های درمانی از مجموع مقالات یافت­شده، بیش از 40 مقاله که به ‌طور مستقیم مرتبط با موضوع مورد مطالعه بود، بررسی شد.
یافته­ ها
از مجموع مقالات یافت­شده، پژوهش‎های متعددی پیرامون شروع و پایان نیمه‌ارادی راه رفتن، شروع و پایان راه‌ رفتن بر سطوح مختلف و شروع و پایان راه‎ رفتن در گروه‌های سنی مختلف و یا افراد مبتلا به بیماری‌های عصبی-عضلانی یافت شد.
نتیجه­ گیری
با توجه به مطالعات انجام­شده می‌توان گفت اگرچه استراتژی‌های حرکتی متفاوتی در شروع راه‌ رفتن با سرعت‌های کم و زیاد به ‌کار گرفته می‎شود و همواره گروه جوان و سالمند الگوی فعالیت عضلانی متفاوتی را در فازهای مختلف در شروع راه‌ رفتن به ‏کار می‏گیرند، ورزشکاران و افراد فعال به ‏دلیل برخورداری از قدرت عضلانی بهتر و زمان عکس‌العمل کوتاه‌تر از مکانیسم‌های جبران برای پیشگری از سقوط و بروز آسیب بهره می‏برند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biomechanical Variables of Gait Initiation and Gait Termination with Emphasis on Instruments, Floors, and Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nesa Keshavarz Moghadam 1
  • Haider Sadeghi 2
1 PhD in Sport Biomechanics, Department of Biomechanics and Sport Injuries, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Full Professor, Department of Biomechanics and Sport Injuries, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences and Research Institute of Movement Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: One of the most commonly used human movements that plays an essential part of many daily activities and competitive or group sports is gait. Gait initiation is the first step after changing from static to dynamic status of walking and gait termination is the last step before changing from dynamic to static status. By accepting the effect of the properties of floor coverings, people's age, diseases, and musculoskeletal disorders on biomechanical parameters of human's movement, it seems that not only the pattern of muscular activity and the biomechanical parameters of gait initiation and gait termination are different from the routine gait, but these variables are influenced by individual's conditions and various surfaces on which people move on, too. On the other hand, people's imbalance and fall often occur at gait initiation or gait termination. Identifying kinematic and kinetic parameters of gait initiation and gait termination provides useful information to recognize the disturbances of this phase of gait, its pathology, and performance correction. The aim of the present study is reviewing studies carried out since the end of the twentieth century on biomechanical variables of gait initiation and gait termination in different groups and different conditions.
Materials and Methods: Searching articles was done from databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Mendely, using “gait initiation, gait termination, kinematics, and kinetics” keywords. More than 300 articles on the pattern of muscle activity and biomechanical parameters of gait initiation and gait termination were found. After studying and deleting articles with similar results and articles on therapeutic protocols from the total number of articles, more than 40 articles that were directly related to the subject matter were studied.
Results: From among the papers located, several studies were about planned and unplanned gait initiation or gait termination, gait initiation or gait termination on different floor coverings, in various age groups or people with musculoskeletal disorders.
Conclusion: According to the articles studied, it can be stated that different motor strategies are used at gait initiation at low and high velocities and the young and old groups always uses different muscle activity patterns in different phases of gait initiation. It seems that athletes and active people benefit from better muscle strength and shorter reaction times to prevent collapse and injury making use of compensatory mechanisms.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gait initiation
  • Gait termination
  • Kinematics
  • Kinetics
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