تاثیر تحریک الکتریکی جریان مستقیم بر حافظه ی کاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 کمیته پژوهشی دانشجویان، دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد شنوایی شناسی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه شنوایی شناسی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد آمار زیستی، گروه علوم پایه، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

4 استاد گروه فیزیوتراپی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
حافظه­ی کاری کارکردی شناختی است که مسئول حفظ اطلاعات آنی، دستکاری و استفاده از آنها در فرآیند تفکر می­باشد. حافظه­ی کاری نیز مانند سایر توانایی­های شناختی می­تواند در اثر عوامل مختلفی از قبیل بیماری­ها، آسیب­های روانی و پیری دچار ضعف عملکرد و اختلال شود؛ از این رو تلاش به منظور یافتن روش­هایی برای جبران این ضعف­ها بسیار حائز اهمیت است. در میان نوین­ترین روش­های پیشنهادشده، تحریک الکتریکی جریان مستقیم از طریق جمجمه جایگاه ویژه­ای دارد. هدف مطالعه حاضر مرور اثرات تحریک الکتریکی جریان مستقیم آندی بر حافظه­ی کاری در افراد سالم می­باشد.
مواد و روش ­ها
در مطالعه­ی حاضر، مقالات مختلف در زمینه­ی تاثیر تحریک الکتریکی جریان مستقیم بر حافظه­ی کاری در پایگاه­های اطلاعاتی Scopus ,PubMed Science Direct و Web of Knowledge در فاصله­ی سال­های 2000 تا 2018 میلادی مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. جست­و­جو در پایگاه­های فوق با استفاده از کلیدواژه­های"Working Memory","Healthy People","Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex" و"Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation" انجام شد. از میان 70 مقاله­ی یافت­شده، 36 مقاله با در نظر گرفتن معیارهای ورود و خروج انتخاب شد و مورد بررسی قرار گرفت که از میان آن مقالات، 14 مقاله اختصاصاً در ارتباط با موضوع پژوهش بود و جزییات آنها استخراج گردید.
یافته ­ها
نتایج به دست آمده از اکثر مطالعات حاکی از آن است که تحریک الکتریکی آندی می­تواند به صورت قابل توجهی باعث بهبود عملکرد حافظه­ی کاری شود. هم­چنین تحریک الکتریکی در حالتی که همراه با تکالیف شناختی باشد در مقایسه با زمانی که تحریک الکتریکی به تنهایی ارائه می­شود، بیش­تر تاثیرگذار است.
نتیجه­ گیری
تحریک الکتریکی جریان مستقیم با تعدیل فعالیت­های الکتریکی در بخش خلفی جانبی قشر پیش پیشانی می­تواند منجر به بهبود عملکردهای شناختی و به ویژه حافظه­ی کاری در افراد سالم شود. با این وجود نیاز به انجام مطالعات بیش­تر در این حوزه به خصوص بر روی افراد سالمند که توانایی­های شناختی آنان با افزایش سن کاهش می­یابد، هم­چنان وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Working Memory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahand Nazeri 1
  • Ali Mohammadzadeh 2
  • Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaee 3
  • Asghar RezaSoltani 4
1 Student Research Committee, MSc Student in Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 MSc in Biostatistics, Basic Sciences Department, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims:Working memory as a cognitive performance is responsible for keeping transient information and manipulating and using them in thinking process. Working memory, like other cognitive abilities, can be impaired due to various factors such as diseases, psychological disorders, and aging. Therefore, it is very important to find ways to compensate these weaknesses. Transcranial direct current stimulation, among the most recent proposed methods, seems to be a promising method. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on working memory in healthy individuals.
Materials and Methods: Literature was searched for the studies investigating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on working memory in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Knowledge databases from among the papers published between 2000-2018 using the following keywords: "Working memory", "Healthy people", "Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex", and "Transcranial direct current stimulation". Out of the 70 papers obtained, 36 articles were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among those articles, 14 were specifically related to the subject of the present research and thus were further examined.
Results: The results reported in most of the studies indicated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation can significantly improve the performance of working memory. Also, the electrical stimulation, together with cognitive tasks, is more effective as compared with single electrical stimulation.
Conclusion: Transcranial direct current stimulation can improve cognitive performances, especially working memory in healthy people, by modulating the electrical activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. However, further studies are required, especially on the elderly population whose cognitive abilities are diminished with age.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Transcranial direct current stimulation
  • Working memory
  • Prefrontal cortex
1.   Alberini CM. Mechanisms of memory stabilization: are consolidation and reconsolidation similar or distinct processes? Trends in neurosciences. 2005;28(1):51-6.##

2.   Baddeley A. Working memory: theories, models, and controversies. Annual review of psychology. 2012;63:1-29. ##

3.   Cowan N. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Progress in brain research. 2008;169:323-38. ##

4.   Vandierendonck A. A Working Memory System With Distributed Executive Control. Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. 2016;11(1):74-100. ##

5.   Mitchell AJ. Is it time to separate subjective cognitive complaints from the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment? Age and ageing. 2008;37(5):497-9. ##

6.   Small GW, Silverman DH, Siddarth P, Ercoli LM, Miller KJ, Lavretsky H, et al. Effects of a 14-day healthy longevity lifestyle program on cognition and brain function. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. 2006;14(6):538-45. ##

7.   Olsson H, Poom L. Visual memory needs categories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2005;102(24):8776-80. ##

8.   Jobst BC, Darcey TM, Thadani VM, Roberts DW. Brain stimulation for the treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2010;51 Suppl 3:88-92. ##

9.   Nitsche MA, Cohen LG, Wassermann EM, Priori A, Lang N, Antal A, et al. Transcranial direct current stimulation: State of the art 2008. Brain stimulation. 2008;1(3):206-23. ##

10. Parent A. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques. 2004;31(4):576-84. ##

11. Hummel FC, Heise K, Celnik P, Floel A, Gerloff C, Cohen LG. Facilitating skilled right hand motor function in older subjects by anodal polarization over the left primary motor cortex. Neurobiology of aging. 2010;31(12):2160-8. ##

12. Oliviero A, Profice P, Tonali PA, Pilato F, Saturno E, Dileone M, et al. Effects of aging on motor cortex excitability. Neuroscience research. 2006;55(1):74-7. ##

13. Wu T, Zang Y, Wang L, Long X, Hallett M, Chen Y, et al. Aging influence on functional connectivity of the motor network in the resting state. Neuroscience letters. 2007;422(3):164-8. ##

14. Nilsson J, Lebedev AV, Lövdén M. No Significant Effect of Prefrontal tDCS on Working Memory Performance in Older Adults. Frontiers in aging neuroscience. 2015;7:230-.##

15. Westwood SJ, Romani C. Null Effects on Working Memory and Verbal Fluency Tasks When Applying Anodal tDCS to the Inferior Frontal Gyrus of Healthy Participants. Frontiers in neuroscience. 2018;12:166-.##

16. Andrews SC, Hoy KE, Enticott PG, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB. Improving working memory: the effect of combining cognitive activity and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Brain stimulation. 2011;4(2):84-9. ##

17. Fregni F, Boggio PS, Nitsche M, Bermpohl F, Antal A, Feredoes E, et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. Experimental brain research. 2005;166(1):23-30. ##

18. Ohn SH, Park CI, Yoo WK, Ko MH, Choi KP, Kim GM, et al. Time-dependent effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on the enhancement of working memory. Neuroreport. 2008;19(1):43-7. ##

19. Mulquiney PG, Hoy KE, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB. Improving working memory: exploring the effect of transcranial random noise stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2011;122(12):2384-9. ##

20. Zaehle T, Sandmann P, Thorne JD, Jancke L, Herrmann CS. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex modulates working memory performance: combined behavioural and electrophysiological evidence. BMC neuroscience. 2011;12:2. ##

21. Hoy KE, Emonson MRL, Arnold SL, Thomson RH, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB. Testing the limits: Investigating the effect of tDCS dose on working memory enhancement in healthy controls. Neuropsychologia. 2013;51(9):1777-84. ##

22. Giglia G, Brighina F, Rizzo S, Puma A, Indovino S, Maccora S, et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex enhances memory-guided responses in a visuospatial working memory task. Functional Neurology. 2014;29(3):189-93. ##

23. Pope PA, Brenton JW, Miall RC. Task-Specific Facilitation of Cognition by Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex. Cerebral cortex (New York, NY : 1991). 2015;25(11):4551-8. ##

24. Talsma LJ, Kroese HA, Slagter HA. Boosting Cognition: Effects of Multiple-Session Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Working Memory. Journal of cognitive neuroscience. 2017;29(4):755-68. ##

25. Berryhill ME, Jones KT. tDCS selectively improves working memory in older adults with more education. Neuroscience letters. 2012;521(2):148-51. ##

26. Jones KT, Stephens JA, Alam M, Bikson M, Berryhill ME. Longitudinal Neurostimulation in Older Adults Improves Working Memory. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(4):e0121904. ##

27. Stephens JA, Berryhill ME. Older Adults Improve on Everyday Tasks after Working Memory Training and Neurostimulation. Brain stimulation. 2016;9(4):553-9. ##

28. Baddeley A. Working memory, thought, and action. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press; 2007. xviii, 412-xviii, p. ##

29. Ulam F, Shelton C, Richards L, Davis L, Hunter B, Fregni F, et al. Cumulative effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on EEG oscillations and attention/working memory during subacute neurorehabilitation of traumatic brain injury. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2015;126(3):486-96. ##

30. Boggio PS, Ferrucci R, Rigonatti SP, Covre P, Nitsche M, Pascual-Leone A, et al. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on working memory in patients with Parkinson's disease. Journal of the neurological sciences. 2006;249(1):31-8. ##

31. Yun GJ, Chun MH, Kim BR. The Effects of Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation on Cognition in Stroke Patients. Journal of Stroke. 2015;17(3):354-8. ##

32. Grabner RH, Neubauer AC, Stern E. Superior performance and neural efficiency: the impact of intelligence and expertise. Brain research bulletin. 2006;69(4):422-39. ##

33. Solso RL. Brain Activities in a Skilled versus a Novice Artist: An fMRI Study. Leonardo. 2001;34(1):31-4. ##

34. Tyler LK, Marslen-Wilson WD, Randall B, Wright P, Devereux BJ, Zhuang J, et al. Left inferior frontal cortex and syntax: function, structure and behaviour in patients with left hemisphere damage. Brain : a journal of neurology. 2011;134(Pt 2):415-31. ##

35. Reinhart RMG, Cosman JD, Fukuda K, Woodman GF. Using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to understand cognitive processing. Attention, perception & psychophysics. 2017;79(1):3-23.    ##             

36. Nitsche MA, Paulus W. Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation. The Journal of Physiology.2000;5.633-9:(2)27##