رشد و تکامل شنوائی، گفتار، زبان و شناخت از جنینی تا ۸ سالگی

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسنده

عضو هیئت علمی گروه شنوائی شناسی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پرشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران دانشجوی دکترای شنوائی شناسی دانشکده توانبخشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
مطالعه روند تکامل شنوائی در انسان دانشی به نسبت جدید بشمار می آید. شنوائی نقش مهمی در رشد و تکامل، گفتار، زبان، یادگیری، حافظه و شناخت حتی در دوران جنینی ایفا می کند. هدف از این مقاله مروری  بررسی رشد و تکامل شنوائی، گفتار، زبان و شناخت از دوران جنینی تا ۸  سالگی است.
مواد و روش ها
در مطالعه حاضر مقالات منتشرشده طی سالهای ۱۹۳۲ تا ۲۰۱۶ در زمینه رشد و تکامل سیستم شنوائی، گفتار، زبان، سیستم عصبی، حافظه، سیستم لیمبیک و یادگیری در بانکهای اطلاعاتی Pubmed، Elsevier، ScienceDirect،  Springer،Scopus، ISI، Google Scholar و  Wiley و با واژه های کلیدی تکامل شنوائی، تکامل سیستم عصبی، تکامل حافظه، رشد گفتار ، رشد زبان، تکامل یادگیری و شناخت مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
یافته ها
برخلاف بینائی، تجربۀ شنوائی پیش از تولد آغاز شده و رشد و تکامل آن همگام با تکامل شناخت، زبان و گفتار تا سالها پس از تولد ادامه می یابد.
نتیجه گیری
حافظۀ شنیداری جنین در کسب مهارتهای زبانی آتی نقش مهمی ایفا می کند. همچنین شنوائی در شکل گیری رشد طبیعی زبان، گفتار، حافظه، یادگیری و شناخت اهمییت بسزائی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Development of Hearing, Speech, Language, and Cognition before Birth Up to Eight Years of Age

نویسنده [English]

  • Leyla Jalilvand Karimi
Instructor, Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran PhD student in Audiology, Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: The study of hearing development in human fetuses and infants is relatively young. Hearing plays an important role in normal development of speech, language, learning, memory, and cognition even prior to birth. The aim of the present study was to review articles on development of hearing, speech, language, and cognition before birth up to eight years of age.
Materials and Methods: In present study, articles on development of hearing, speech, language, nervous system, memory, limbic system, and learning that were published between 1932 to 2016 on Pubmed, Elsevier, Science Direct, Springer, Scopus, ISI, Google Scholar, and Wiley databases were searched and reviewed using the following keywords: development of hearing, development of speech and language, development of nervous system, development of memory, and development learning and cognition.
Results: In contrast to vision, early experience of hearing begins before birth and its development continues along the development of speech, language, and cognition to years after birth.
Conclusion: Fetal auditory memory plays an important role in acquisition of future language skills. Also, hearing is vital in normal development of speech, language, memory, learning, and cognition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • development of hearing
  • development of speech and language
  • development of memory
  • Development of learning and cognition
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