عملکرد بهتر سیستم حسی- پیکری در کنترل پوسچر ورزشکاران نابینا نسبت به غیرورزشکاران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه آسیب شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، پژوهشکده طب ورزشی، پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، پژوهشکده طب ورزشی، پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران، ایران

3 دکتری تخصصی حرکات اصلاحی، گروه طب ورزشی و بهداشت، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
سیستم حسی-پیکری یکی از مهم­ترین منابع حسی درگیر در کنترل پوسچر می­باشد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر مقایسه عملکرد سیستم حسی-پیکری در کنترل پوسچر نابینایان ورزشکار و غیرورزشکاران نابینا و بینا بود.
مواد و روش ها
30 مرد به طور هدفمند انتخاب شدند و در سه گروه ورزشکاران نابینای کلاس B1 گلبال (10 نفر)، افراد نابینای مطلق غیرورزشکار (10 نفر) و افراد بینای غیرورزشکار (10 نفر) قرار گرفتند. در شرایط آزمایشگاهی اطلاعات حس پیکری در کنترل پوسچر غالب گردید، سپس عملکرد سیستم کنترل پوسچر آزمودنی­ها بر اساس میزان جابه­جایی مرکز ثقل در جهت داخلی-خارجی، قدامی-خلفی و به صورت کلی با استفاده از دستگاه تعادل­سنج بایودکس ارزیابی شد. مقایسه متغیرها در بین گروه­ها با آزمون کروسکال والیس و یومن-ویتنی در سطح معناداری 05/0> Pو با نرم­افزار SPSS نسخه 22 صورت گرفت.
یافته ­ها
نتایج آزمون کروسکال والیس نشان داد وقتی اطلاعات بینایی حذف و سر در وضعیت هایپراکستنشن است، میزان جابه­جایی مرکز ثقل در جهت داخلی-خارجی (006/0=PML) و به صورت کلی (041/0=PTotal) بین سه گروه نابینای ورزشکار، نابینای غیرورزشکار و بینای غیرورزشکار تفاوت معناداری دارد. بر اساس نتایج آزمون یومن­ویتنی، میزان جابه­جایی مرکز ثقل در جهت داخلی-خارجی و به صورت کلی در گروه نابینای ورزشکار به طور معناداری کمتر از دو گروه غیرورزشکار نابینا (011/0=PMLو 049/0=PTotal) و غیرورزشکار بینا (003/0=PMLو 025/0=PTotal) بود.
نتیجه­ گیری
در شرایطی که اطلاعات حس پیکری غالب است، کنترل پوسچر ورزشکاران گلبال بهتر از نابینایان غیرورزشکار و حتی افراد بینای غیرورزشکار بود، به نظر می­رسد فعالیت­های ورزشی و یا ماهیت رشته ورزشی گلبال در تقویت حس پیکری و بهبود کنترل پوسچر نقش موثری دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Better Functioning of the somatosensory system in Postural Control of Blind Athletes Compared to Non-Athletes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fariba Mohammadi 1
  • Mahdi Bayati 2
  • Hamed Abbasi 1
  • Nahid Allafan 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Sports Medicine Research Center, Sport Sciences Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Sports Medicine Research Center, Sport Sciences Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.
3 PhD of Corrective Exercise, Department of Sport Medicine and Health, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: The somatosensory system is one of the most important sensory sources involved in postural control. The purpose of the present study was to compare function of the somatosensory system in postural control of blind athletes compared to blind and the sighted non-athletes.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 men were purposefully selected and categorized into three groups of blind athletes of Goalball B1 class (n=10), absolute blind non-athletes (n=10), and the sighted non-athletes (n=10). In vitro, body sensory information was predominant in posture control, and then participant's performance of the posture control system was evaluated based on the center of gravity displacement in the internal-external, anterior-posterior direction, and total using the balance measurement instrument Biodex. The comparison of variables among the groups was done using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at a significance level of PResults: The results of Kruskal Wallis test indicated that when the visual information is removed and the head is in the hyperactivity state, the differences in the center of gravity displacement in the internal-external direction (PML=0.006) and total (PTotal=0.041) among the three groups of the blind athletes, the blind non-athletes, and the sighted non-athletes were observed to be significant. According to the results of Uhnu-Whitney test, the center of gravity displacement in the internal-external direction and total in the blind athletes group was significantly less than that of the two blind non- athletes (PML=0.011, PTotal=0.049) and the sighted non-athletes (PML=0.003, PTotal=0.025) groups.
Conclusion: In situations where the somatosensory system data is predominant, the postural control of Goalball's athletes was better than that of the blind non-athletes and even the sighted non-athletes. It seems that the activities of sport or the nature of the Goalball are effective in improving the somatosensory and postural control.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Goalball
  • Absolute Blind
  • Postural control
  • Vision
  • Vestibular System
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