مقایسۀ کیفیت زندگی و آمادگی جسمانی پسران و دختران ورزشکار کم‌توان ذهنی شرکت‌کننده در المپیک ویژه ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، گروه آسیب شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار، دکترای آسیب شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی و استادیار، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 کارشناسی ارشد آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

4 دکتری تخصصی پزشکی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی و استادیار، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

5 دکتری آسیب شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی و استاد، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
افراد کم‌توان ذهنی یک گروه اجتماعی آسیب­پذیر هستند که جنبۀ سلامت جسمانی آنها نیز از اهمیت خاصی برخوردار است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، مقایسۀ کیفیت زندگی و آمادگی جسمانی پسران و دختران ورزشکار کم‌توان ذهنی شرکت‌کننده در المپیک ویژه ایران بود.
مواد و روش­ ها
نمونۀ پژوهش حاضر شامل 126 کم‌توان ذهنی، 70 پسر کم‌توان ذهنی با و بدون سندرم داون و 56 دختر کم‌توان ذهنی بدون سندرم داون، 18 تا 30 سال شرکت‌کننده در المپیک ویژه ایران بودند. جهت ارزیابی از مجموعه آزمون‌های یوروفیت ویژه شامل قدرت انفجاری پا (پرش طول)، قدرت دست (پرتاب توپ 2 کیلوگرمی)، استقامت موضعی عضلانی (درازونشست)، سرعت (25 متر دویدن)، انعطاف‌پذیری (نشستن و رسیدن) و تعادل (راه رفتن بر روی نیمکت) برای آمادگی جسمانی و از پرسش­نامۀ کیفیت زندگی اسچالاک و کیت برای کیفیت زندگی استفاده شد. برای مقایسۀ دو گروه از نرم‌افزار SPSS و روش‌های آماری تی مستقل و یو من-ویتنی، در سطح معناداری (05/0=α) استفاده شد.
یافته­ ها
در متغیر‌های کفایت/سازندگی (010/0=P)، توانمندسازی/استقلال (001/0=P)، نمرۀ کلی کیفیت زندگی (037/0=P)، شاخص تودۀ بدن (008/0=P)، استقامت موضعی عضلانی (010/0=P)، سرعت (001/0=P) و قدرت دست (001/0=P) میان پسران کم‌توان ذهنی با سندرم داون و دختران کم‌توان ذهنی، و همچنین کفایت/سازندگی (036/0=P)، توانمندسازی/استقلال (001/0=P)، نمرۀ کلی کیفیت زندگی (021/0=P)، انعطاف‌پذیری (003/0=P)، تعادل (001/0=P)، سرعت (001/0=P) و قدرت دست (001/0=P) میان پسران کم‌توان ذهنی بدون سندرم داون و دختران کم‌توان ذهنی تفاوت معنادار مشاهده شد.
نتیجه ­گیری
با توجه به نتایج حاضر، می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که پسران ورزشکار کم‌توان ذهنی نسبت به دختران کیفیت زندگی و آمادگی جسمانی بالاتری دارند. با توجه به اطلاعات کم در این زمینه، بررسی دقیق‌تر محتوای برنامه‌ها در مراکز المپیک ویژه ایران ضروری می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the Quality of Life and Physical Fitness in Males and Female Athletes with Intellectual Disability Participating in Iranian Special Olympics

نویسندگان [English]

  • Milad Fadaei Dehcheshmeh 1
  • Ali shamsi majelan 2
  • Seyedeh Roya Jafari 3
  • Nader Samami 4
  • Hassan Daneshmandi 5
1 MSc of Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercise,Department of Sport injury and Corrective Exercise, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercise, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Masters of Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercise, Faculty of physical education and sport science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
4 PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercise, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
5 PhD. of Sport Injuries & Corrective Exercise and Professor, Faculty of physical education and sport science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: People with Intellectual Disability are a vulnerable social group whose physical health is also important. The purpose of the present study was to compare quality of life and physical fitness in male and female athletes with Intellectual Disability participating in Iranian Special Olympics.
Materials and Methods: The research sample included 126 individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: 70 males with Intellectual Disability with and without Down Syndrome and 56 females with Intellectual Disability without Down Syndrome, aged 18 to 30 years participating in Iranian Special Olympics. As for assess, a set of Eurofit Special tests, including explosive leg strength (standing broad jump), arm strength (pushing a 2 kg ball), abdominal muscle endurance (Sit-up), speed (20 meter run), flexibility (sit and reach), and balance (walk on a bench) for physical fitness, and Schalock’s and Keith’s Quality of Life Questionnaire for quality of life were used. To compare the two groups, SPSS software was used running independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U statistical methods at the significance level of =α0/05.
Results: There was a significant difference in variables Competence/Productivity (P=0.010), Empowerment/Independence (P=0.001), total score of the Quality of Life (P=0.037), body mass index (P=0.008), abdominal muscle endurance (P=0.010), speed (P=0.001), and arm strength (P=0.001) between males with Intellectual Disability with Down Syndrome and females with Intellectual Disability, and also Competence/Productivity (P=0.036), Empowerment/Independence (P=0.001), total score of the Quality of Life (P=0.021), flexibility (P=0.003), balance (P=0.001), speed (P=0.001), and arm strength (P=0.001) between males with Intellectual Disability without Down Syndrome and females with Intellectual Disability.
Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that male athletes with Intellectual Disability have higher quality of life and physical fitness than females with intellectual disability. As for the little information on this issue, it is necessary to examine more accurately the content of programs of the Iranian Special Olympics.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Special Olympics Iran
  • physical activity
  • Intellectual Disability athlete
  • Down syndrome
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