مدل کار انسان: مروری بر کاربرد‌های بالینی در توانبخشی کودکان

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسنده

استادیار گروه آموزشی کاردرمانی، دانشکده علوم توانبخشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
استفاده از مدل در استدلال درمانی درمانگرانِ توانبخشی باعث ایجاد چهارچوب ذهنی و توانایی سازماندهی متغیر‌های دخیل در فرآیند درمان می‌شود. وسیع‌ترین مدل کاردرمانی، «مدل کار انسان» نام دارد که بر اساس نظریه سیستم‌‌های باز ایجاد شده است. این مدل می‌‌تواند کاربرد وسیعی در توانبخشی و حتی آموزش­وپرورش داشته باشد. با این وجود، منابع اندکی در دست است که نشان دهد در حیطه کودکان از آن استفاده شده است. از آنجا که شناخت کافی و عمیق، پیش‌نیاز استفاده بالینی از یک مدل مفهومی‌ می‌‌باشد، در مطالعه حاضر تلاش بر این است تا اطلاعات لازم برای استفاده از «مدل کار انسان» در حیطه کودکان به خوانندگان ارائه شود.
مواد و روش­ ها
مطالعه حاضر با جستجوی منابع موجود در قالب وب­سایت، کتاب و پایگاه‌‌های اطلاعاتی Google Scholer، Pubmed، Science Direct و Magiran از زمان ایجاد مدل کار انسان (1985) تاکنون انجام شده است.
یافته­ ها
مفاهیم مدل کار انسان در مورد فعالیت‌های مختص کودکان مانند بازی، انجام تکالیف مدرسه و غیره قابل تعریف است که نقش والدین و همچنین پدیده رشد، جزء جدایی­ناپذیر این تعاریف هستند. این مدل شش ارزیابی برای کودکان دارد که تا به حال نسخه فارسی برای دو ارزیابی «خود-ارزیابی کاری کودک» و «پرسش­نامه انگیزه‌ی انجام کار در کودکان» تهیه و روانسنجی شده است. شش مطالعه یافت شد که در طراحی برنامه توانبخشی برای کودکان از این مدل استفاده کرد‌ه‌اند. اطلاعات ابزار‌های ارزیابی‌ و شواهد مداخله‌ای در جداول آورده شده است.
نتیجه ­گیری
مدل کار انسان، تعامل عوامل درونیِ فرد (انگیزه‌ی انجام کار، فرآیند شکل‌گیری عادات و ظرفیت‌‌های عملکردی)، فعالیتی که باید انجام شود و شرایط محیط را تحلیل می‌‌کند. برای تعریف مفاهیم مدل کار انسان در کودکان لازم است موضوعات خاص مانند رشد و تکامل در نظر گرفته شود. درگیر بودن فعال کودک در درمان، از ویژگی‌‌های این مدل است. وجود ابزار‌های ارزیابی معتبر در این مدل، به­کارگیری آن در درمان را تسهیل می‌‌کند. لحاظ کردن نکات خاص در استفاده از این ارزیابی‌ها در کودکان، در مقاله کنونی بحث شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Model of Human Occupation: A Review on Clinical Applications in Rehabilitation of Children

نویسنده [English]

  • Samaneh Karamali-Esmaili
Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Using the model in clinical reasoning of rehabilitation practitioners creates a mental framework and the ability to organize the variables involved in the rehabilitation process. The broadest model of occupational therapy, called the "Model of Human Occupation" (MOHO), is based on the open systems theory. This model can be used extensively in rehabilitation and even education. However, there are a few sources to show that it has been used in children. Since existing knowledge is a prerequisite for clinical use of a conceptual model, the present study seeks to provide the information needed to use the MOHO in children.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by searching several sources including the related websites, books, and Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Magiran databases since developing the MOHO (since 1985).
Results: The concepts of MOHO are definable with regard to children’s activities such as play, schoolwork, etc. Parent’s role and the phenomenon of development are integral parts of these definitions. This model has six assessment tools for children two of which have been translated and validated as the Persian versions, which include the "Child Occupational Self-Assessment" (COSA) and the "Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire" (PVQ). Six studies have were found using the MOHO as the framework of intervention program for children. Information on evaluation tools and interventional evidence are presented in the Tables.
Conclusion: The MOHO analyzes the transaction among the individual's internal factors (volition, habituation, and performance capacities), the activity that is taking place, and the environmental conditions. To define the applications of the MOHO in children, it is necessary to consider the specific issues such as growth and development phenomenon. The active involvement of the child in treatment is a feature of this model. The availability of valid assessment tools in this model facilitates its use in rehabilitation. Considering specific points in using these assessments in children is discussed in this article.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Model of Human Occupation
  • occupational therapy
  • Children, Assessment
  • Rehabilitation
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