نقش میانجی‌گری خودشفقت‌ورزی در رابطه بین نگرش به دین و بهزیستی روان‌شناختی در سالمندان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه رازی، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دانشیار روان‌شناسی، گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه رازی، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 استادیار روان‌شناسی، گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه رازی، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
بهزیستی روان‌شناختی از مهم‌ترین نیازهای اساسی سالمندان است که می‌تواند بر جنبه‌های مختلف زندگی آنان تأثیر بگذارد. دین‌داری موجب افزایش بهزیستی روان‌شناختی می‌شود، اما علل این همایندی به ‌وضوح روشن نیست؛ بنابراین هدف از مطالعه حاضر بررسی نقش واسطه‌ای خودشفقت‌ورزی در رابطه بین دین‌داری و بهزیستی روان‌شناختی است.
مواد و روش‌ها
بر اساس پیشنهاد گاداگنولی و ولیسر (1998) نمونه‌ای به تعداد 300 نفر از مردان سالمند سراهای نگهداری نیمه‌وقت شهر کرمانشاه به روش تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. سالمندان به مقیاس‌های بهزیستی روان‌شناختی، خودشفقت‌ورزی و نگرش به دین پاسخ دادند. برای محاسبه شاخص‌های توصیفی از آمار توصیفی و برای بررسی رابطه میان متغیرهای پژوهش از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS نسخه 23 استفاده شد. همچنین به‌منظور تحلیل داده‌ها از مدل­یابی معادلات ساختاری جهت آزمون مسیرهای میانجی‌گری در الگوی پیشنهادشده و پاسخ دادن به فرضیه‌های پژوهش درباره اثرات غیرمستقیم نگرش به دین از طریق خودشفقت‌ورزی از روش خودگردان­سازی با استفاده از نرم‌افزار AMOS نسخه 23 استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها
نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان داد اثر مستقیم نگرش به دین و بهزیستی روان‌شناختی بدون حضور متغیر میانجی (خودشفقت­ورزی) معنا‌دار است و تأیید می‌شود (48/0=β)، یعنی دین‌داری بدون حضور متغیر میانجی موجب افزایش بهزیستی می‌شود. همچنین اثر مستقیم نگرش به دین بر خودشفقت‌ورزی (46/0=β)، اثر مستقیم خودشفقت‌ورزی بر بهزیستی (80/0=β) و اثر غیرمستقیم نگرش دینی بر بهزیستی روان‌شناختی از طریق خودشفقت‌ورزی (37/0=β) معنا‌دار است و تأیید می‌شود؛ بنابراین خودشفقت‌ورزی می‌تواند رابطه بین نگرش به دین و بهزیستی را میانجی‌گری کند.
نتیجه‌ گیری
پژوهش حاضر پس از ترسیم الگویی برای تعیین رابطه نگرش به دین با بهزیستی روان‌شناختی، رابطه نگرش به دین با خودشفقت‌ورزی و همچنین رابطه آن‌ها را با بهزیستی روان‌شناختی روشن کرد. بدین‌صورت که نگرش به دین می‌تواند با افزایش خودشفقت‌ورزی تأثیر مثبتی بر بهزیستی روان‌شناختی سالمندان اعمال کند؛ بنابراین توجه به نقش خودشفقت‌ورزی در تبیین رابطه نگرش به دین و بهزیستی روان‌شناختی حائز اهمیت است و می‌توان با ایجاد ظرفیت‌های فردی و روانی برای افزایش خودشفقت‌ورزی، بهزیستی روان‌شناختی سالمندان را بهبود بخشید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mediating Role of Self-Compassion in the Relationship between Attitude toward Religion and Psychological Well-Being in the Elderly

نویسندگان [English]

  • Payam Varaee 1
  • Khodamorad Momeni 2
  • Asie Moradi 3
1 MA in Psychology, Razi University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Psycholog, Department of Psychology, Razi University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Razi University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Psychological well-being is one of the most important needs of the elderly, which can affect various aspects of their lives. Religiosity increases the psychological well-being, but the causes of this occurrence are not clearly known. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the role of self-compassion in the relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being.
Materials and Methods: According to Guadagnoli & Velicer (1998), a sample of 300 male elderly was selected through simple random sampling method in Kermanshah, Iran. The elderly responded to the following three questionnaires: psychological well-being, self-compassion, and attitude toward religion. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate descriptive indexes. To investigate the relationship between research variables, Pearson correlation coefficient was used using SPSS software, version 23. Also, to analyze the data, structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation routes in the proposed model, and to answer the research hypotheses about the indirect effects of attitude towards religion through Self-Compassion, AMOS, version 23, was used.
Results: The results showed that the direct effect of attitude to religion and psychological well-being without the presence of the intermediary variable (Self-Compassion) is significant and confirmed (β=0.48). That is, religiosity can increase well-being without the presence of a mediator variable. Also, the direct effect of attitude toward religion on Self-Compassion (β=0.46), the direct effect of Self-Compassion on well-being (β=0.80), and the indirect effect of attitude toward religion on psychological well-being through self-compassion (β=0.37) were found to be significant.
Conclusion: The present study, after drawing a pattern for determining the relationship between attitude toward religion and psychological well-being, clarified the relationship between attitude toward religion and self-compassion, as well as their relationship with psychological well-being. This way, attitude toward religion was observed to have a positive impact on the psychological well-being of the elderly by increasing self-compassion. Therefore, attention to the role of self-compassion is important in explaining the relationship between attitude toward religion and psychological well-being and can improve the psychological well-being of the elderly by creating individual and mental capacities to increase self-compassion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attitude toward religion
  • Elderly
  • Psychological well-being
  • Religion
  • Self-Compassion
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