تأثیر شش هفته تمرینات چابکی بر حداکثر نیروهای عکس العمل زمین، حس عمقی زانو، تعادل و عملکرد تکواندوکاران نونهال لیگ استان البرز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد حرکات اصلاحی و آسیب شناسی ورزشی، دانشگاه رجاء قزوین، ایران

2 استادیار، گرو تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
شیوع آسیب­ های ورزشی در ورزش ­های رزمی بالا است. بیشترین آسیب­های تکواندو نیز در ناحیه اندام تحتانی رخ می­دهد. یافته‌های علمی از شیوع بالای آسیب‌های لیگامانی در زانوی ورزشکاران رشته‌های رزمی خبر می‌دهند. هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی تأثیر شش هفته تمرینات چابکی بر حداکثر نیروهای عکس­العمل زمین، حس عمقی زانو، تعادل و عملکرد تکواندوکاران نونهال لیگ استان البرز است.
مواد و روش ­ها
در کل 30 آزمودنی (15 نفر در هر دو گروه تمرینی و کنترل) (سن 63/2±47/13 سال، وزن 56/5±92/45 کیلوگرم و قد 72/4±56/155 سانتی­متر)، به‌صورت هدفمند انتخاب و به‌صورت تصادفی بین گروه‌ها تقسیم شدند. از فرم رضایت‌نامه و جمع‌آوری اطلاعات فردی جهت بررسی پیشینه آزمودنی‌ها و رضایت از شرکت در تحقیق، از فورس پلیت برای ارزیابی حداکثر نیروهای عکس­العمل زمین در مفصل زانو، آزمون‌های عملکردی جهش تک‌پا و جهش سه‌گانه تک‌پا برای سنجش عملکرد حرکتی، گونیامتر یونیورسال جهت اندازه‌گیری حس عمقی مفصل زانو و آزمون تعادلی Y برای ارزیابی تعادل پویای آزمودنی‌ها استفاده شد. پس از گروه‌بندی، پیش‌آزمون جهت اندازه‌گیری متغیرهای مورد نظر تحقیق اجرا شد. سپس، برنامه‌ی تمرینات چابکی (دارای چهار سطح و بر مبنای حرکات عملکردی) به مدت شش هفته بر روی آزمودنی‌های گروه تجربی اعمال و سپس پس‌آزمون، با رویه یکسان با پیش‌آزمون اجرا شد.
یافته ­ها
یافته‌ها نشان داد که انجام شش هفته برنامه‌ی تمرینی ارائه‌شده احتمالاً موجب کاهش حداکثر نیروهای عکس­العمل زمین در زانو (00/0P=) (حدود 4% کاهش) و بهبود تعادل پویا در جهت خلفی-داخلی (02/0P=) (حدود 20% بهبود) و حس عمقی افراد (00/0P=) (حدود 55% کاهش خطا) شرکت‌کننده در تحقیق حاضر در گروه تمرین نسبت به گروه کنترل می‌شود.
نتیجه­ گیری
نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که تأثیر تمرینات چابکی بر فاکتورهای ذکرشده در بالا، معنادار بوده است. بر این اساس، این تمرینات می­تواند به‌عنوان روش تمرینی ایمن و مؤثر در بهبود این عوامل در تکواندوکاران، مورد توجه قرار گیرد. همچنین این تمرینات احتمالاً با تأثیرات مثبت خود بر عوامل بالا می‌تواند موجب بهبود عوامل دیگر شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Six Weeks of Agility Exercises on Maximum Ground Reaction Force, Knee Proprioception, Balance, and Performance in Taekwondo Athletes of Alborz Province League

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad reza Javadi 1
  • Hadi Miri 2
  • Amir Letafatkar 3
1 MSc in Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Raja, Qazvin, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Amirkabir, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Biomechanic and Sport Injury, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Martial arts have the highest prevalence rate of sport injuries. Most injuries in Taekwondo occur in lower extremities.
Scientific findings have reported a high prevalence of ligamentous injuries in the athletes’ knee joint in martial arts. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of six weeks of agility exercises on maximum ground reaction force of the knee, knee proprioception, as well as balance and performance in Taekwondo athletes of Alborz Province.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 athletes (Age: 13.47±2.63 years, weight: 45.92±5.56 kg, and height: 155.56±4.72 cm) were selected and randomly assigned into two groups (15 in each group). A voluntary consent was obtained and a demographic information form was used to collected the demographic information Force plate was used to assess the kinetic variable (maximum ground reaction force). Single hop and triple hop functional tests were used to determine the functional performance. Also, universal goniometer was used to measure the proprioception of the knee and Y balance test was used for evaluating the dynamic balance. After group allocations, pre-test was conducted to measure the research variables. After pre-test, the agility exercises program (having four stages and based on jumping movements) was applied in the experimental group for six weeks. Subsequently, the post test was performed to measure the variables of the research, with a procedure similar to the pre-test.
Results: It was found that participating in six weeks of the interventions may result in decreased maximum ground reaction force of the knee (P=0.00) (approximately 4% reduction), improved knee proprioception (P=0.00) (approximately 55% error reduction), and dynamic balance (poterolateral) (P=0.02) (approximately 20% improvement) in the experimental group compared to the control group.
Conclusion: The results of the current study indicated that the effects of agility exercises on the mentioned factors was significant. Therefore, the interventions can be considered as a safe and effective method for improving mentioned factors in Taekwondo athletes. Also, these exercises with their positive effects on the mentioned factors may improve other contributing factors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Functional performance
  • Agility exercises
  • dynamic Balance
  • Proprioception
  • maximum ground reaction force
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