تاثیر بازی های توجهی و توانبخشی شناختی بر توجه و کارکرد های شناختی کودکان بیش فعال

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای یادگیری حرکتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکزی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد خوراسگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران

3 استاد مشاور دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

10.22037/jrm.2019.111196.1828

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
امروزه نقص توجه/بیش­ فعالی از رایج­ترین اختلالات رفتاری و مشکلات روانشناختی کودکان است که در مراجعان به درمانگاه‌های روانپزشکی مشاهده می­شود. هدف پژوهش حاضر "بررسی تاثیر بازی­ های توجهی، توانبخشی شناختی و تمرینات ترکیبی بر توجه و کارکرد­های شناختی کودکان بیش ­فعال" می­باشد.
مواد و روش ­ها
پژوهش حاضر با توجه به اهداف پیش ­بینی­ شده، از نوع تحقیق نیمه­تجربی و طرح آن پیش­ آزمون-پس ­آزمون با چند گروه بود. شرکت­ کنندگان شامل 40 کودک 9 تا 12 سال مقطع ابتدایی بودند که به­ صورت تصادفی در چهار گروه بازی­ های توجه ی، تمرینات توانبخشی شناختی، تمرینات ترکیبی (ریتمیک ­شناختی) و گروه کنترل تقسیم شدند. در پیش ­آزمون هر آزمودنی آزمون­های مربوط به سنجش حافظه کاری (آزمون ان بک)، توجه پایدار (آزمون عملکرد مداوم) و کارکردهای اجرایی (آزمون برج لندن) را اجرا کردند. سپس آزمودنی­ ها بر اساس گروه ­بندی ذکرشده، به­مدت 16 جلسه و هر جلسه به ­مدت 60 دقیقه به تمرین پروتکل گروه خود پرداختند. پس از آخرین جلسه تمرین، آزمودنی­ ها پس­ آزمون را که شامل اجرای مجدد آزمون­ های مربوط به سنجش حافظه کاری (آزمون ان بک)، توجه (آزمون عملکرد مداوم) و کارکردهای اجرایی (آزمون برج لندن) بود را اجرا نمودند.
یافته­ ها
یافته ­ها نشان داد در متغیر کارکردهای اجرایی، حافظه کاری و توجه، گروه تمرین ترکیبی به­طور معناداری خطای کمتری نسبت به گروه کنترل داشتند، اما گروه ­های دیگر تفاوت معناداری باهم نداشتند (05/0>p).
نتیجه ­گیری
گروه­های ترکیبی تقریبا در تمام خرده­مقیاس­ها منجر به بهبود حافظه کاری، توجه و کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان دارای بیش ­فعالی می­شود.این عملکرد بهتر به بهره ­برداری هم­زمان از فواید دو نوع تمرین نسبت داده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Attention Games and Cognitive Rehabilitation on Attention and Cognitive Functions of Children with ADHD

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdieh Eslami nosratabadi 1
  • Mahdi Namazizadeh 2
  • Mohammad Ali Aslankhani 3
1 PhD student in Motor Learning at Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran Branch. Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Sport and Sport Technology, Islamic Azad University, Esfehan, Iran
3 Professor of Allame Tabatabayi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders and psychological problems in children referred to psychiatric clinics. The purpose of the present study was to address the effect of attentional games, cognitive rehabilitation, and mixed practice on attention and cognitive functions of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with pre-test and post-test design. To this purpose, 40 children aged 9-12 years old with attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were selected and randomly assigned into four groups of Cognitive Rehabilitation training, attentional games, mixed practice, and control. In the pre-test, each participant performed the tests for working memory (N-Back test), sustained attention (continuous performance test), and executive functions (London Tower test). Participants practiced for 16 sessions (each session for 60 minutes), according to their grouping Test on working memory, attention, and cognitive functions. After the last training session, participants performed the post-test which included the re-run of the tests for working memory (N-Back test), attention (continuous performance test), and executive functions (London Tower test).
Results: The findings showed that in the variable of executive functions, working memory and attention, the mixed group approximately outperformed the two other experimental groups in all subtests (p <0.05), but the other groups did not differ significantly (p <0.05).
Conclusion: Mixed group in almost all subscales led to improved working memory, attention, and executive functions of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. These results were interpreted according to the usage of profits of two other practice conditions during mixed practice.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Attention Games
  • Cognitive Rehabilitation Training
  • Cognitive Functions
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