تاثیر تغییرات الگوی حرکتی اندام فوقانی بر متغیرهای بیومکانیکی راه رفتن (مطالعه مروری)

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای بیومکانیک ورزشی، گروه بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی، تهران، ایران

2 استادتمام، بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران، استادتمام، پژوهشکده علوم حرکتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و اهداف
نوسان اندام فوقانی در حین راه رفتن به عنوان عاملی تعاملی بین دست­ ها، پاها و تنه به اثبات رسیده است و دارای تاثیرات مهمی بر الگوی طبیعی راه رفتن اندام تحتانی می­باشد. هدف از تحقیق حاضر، بررسی تاثیر تغییرات الگوی حرکتی اندام فوقانی بر متغیرهای بیومکانیکی راه رفتن بوده است.
مواد و روش­ ها
مطالعه حاضر به وسیله بررسی پایگاه­ های Scopus، PubMed، Google Scholar، Ovid، Science Direct، ProQuest، Mesh، DOAJ، Medline، Clinical Key در بازه زمانی 1990 تا 2019، با استفاده از واژگان مرتبط با موضوع انجام­شده و مقالات با توجه به معیارهای ورود و خروج انتخاب گردیدند.
یافته ­ها
یافته ­های تحقیق حاضر حاکی از این بود که تغییر الگوهای اندام فوقانی تاثیرات متفاوتی بر متغیرهای کینماتیکی، فضایی زمانی و کینتیکی راه رفتن دارد.
نتیجه­ گیری
متغیرهای مربوط به فرکانس و طول گام و سرعت در ارتباط با حیطه­ های کینماتیکی و فضایی زمانی و نیز متغیر گشتاور در حوزه کینتیک بیشترین تغییرات را در هنگام تغییر این الگوها نشان می­دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Changes of Upper Extremity Pattern Movements on Biomechanical Variables of Gait: A Systematic Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Razieh Yousefian Molla 1
  • Heydar Sadeghi 2
1 PhD Student, Department of Sports Biomechanics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD, Full professor, Sport Biomechanics, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran, Full Professor, kinesiology Research institution, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aims: Arm Swing during gait is proven as an interaction tool between arms, legs, and trunk, and has important implications for the normal gait pattern in the lower extremity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of changes in upper limb movement pattern on gait biomechanical variables.
Materials and Methods: The scientific database, including Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Ovid, Science Direct, ProQuest, Mesh, DOAJ, Medline, and Clinical Key, were searched for the studies with relevant keywords published from 1990 to 2019. The researches were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Results: Findings of the present study indicated that changes in upper extremity patterns have different effects on kinematics, Spatio temporal, and kinetic variables of gait.
Conclusion: The variables related to velocity, frequency, and step length in relation to kinematic and Spatio temporal domains as well as torque variable in kinetic domain changed the most when these patterns changed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • upper limb pattern movement
  • biomechanical variables
  • gait
1.             Lippert LS, Minor MAD. Laboratory Manual for Clinical Kinesiology and Anatomy: FA Davis; 2017.##

2.             Sadeghi H, Allard P, Prince F, Labelle H. Symmetry and limb dominance in able-bodied gait: a review. Gait & posture. 2000;12(1):34-45. ##

3.             Oatis CA. Kinesiology: the mechanics and pathomechanics of human movement: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Philadelphia; 2004. ##

4.             Whittle MW. Gait analysis.  The Soft Tissues: Elsevier; 1993. p. 187-99. ##

5.             Levangie PK, Norkin CC. Joint structure and function: a comprehensive analysis: FA Davis; 2011. ##

6.             Canton SP. Active Versus Passive Control of Arm Swing: Implication of the Restriction of Pelvis Rotation during Human Locomotion. 2015. ##

7.             Sadeghi H. Local or global asymmetry in gait of people without impairments. Gait & posture. 2003;17(3):197-204. ##

8.             Ballesteros MLF, Buchthal F, Rosenfalck P. The pattern of muscular activity during the arm swing of natural walking. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 1965;63(3):296-310. ##

9.             Yizhar Z, Boulos S, Inbar O, Carmeli E. The effect of restricted arm swing on energy expenditure in healthy men. International journal of rehabilitation research. 2009;32(2):115-23. ##

10.          Jurčević Lulić T, Sušić A, Kodvanj J. Biomechanical analysis of walking: Effects of gait velocity and arm swing amplitude. Periodicum biologorum. 2010;112(1):13-7. ##

11.          Lewek MD, Poole R, Johnson J, Halawa O, Huang X. Arm swing magnitude and asymmetry during gait in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. Gait & posture. 2010;31(2):256-60. ##

12.          Meyns P, Bruijn SM, Duysens J. The how and why of arm swing during human walking. Gait & posture. 2013;38(4):555-62. ##

13.          Bernstein N. The co-ordination and regulation of movements. The co-ordination and regulation of movements. 1966. ##

14.          Umberger BR. Effects of suppressing arm swing on kinematics, kinetics, and energetics of human walking. Journal of biomechanics. 2008;41(11):2575-80. ##

15.          Collins SH, Adamczyk PG, Kuo AD. Dynamic arm swinging in human walking. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 2009;276(1673):3679-88. ##

16.          Zehr EP, Duysens J. Regulation of arm and leg movement during human locomotion. The Neuroscientist. 2004;10(4):347-61. ##

17.          Ferris DP, Huang HJ, Kao P-C. Moving the arms to activate the legs. Exercise and sport sciences reviews. 2006;34(3):113-20. ##

18.          Frigon A, Collins DF, Zehr EP. Effect of rhythmic arm movement on reflexes in the legs: modulation of soleus H-reflexes and somatosensory conditioning. Journal of neurophysiology. 2004;91(4):1516-23. ##

19.          Ortega JD, Fehlman LA, Farley CT. Effects of aging and arm swing on the metabolic cost of stability in human walking. Journal of biomechanics. 2008;41(16):3303-8. ##

20.          Wu Y, Li Y, Liu A-M, Xiao F, Wang Y-Z, Hu F, et al. Effect of active arm swing to local dynamic stability during walking. Human movement science. 2016;45:102-9. ##

21.          Burnett CN, Johnson EW. Development of gait in childhood: Part II. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 1971;13(2):207-15. ##

22.          Eke-Okoro ST, Gregoric M, Larsson L-E. Alterations in gait resulting from deliberate changes of arm-swing amplitude and phase. Clinical Biomechanics. 1997;12(7-8):516-21. ##

23.          Yen S-C, Schmit BD, Wu M. Using swing resistance and assistance to improve gait symmetry in individuals post-stroke. Human movement science. 2015;42:212-24. ##

24.          Marks R. The effect of restricting arm swing during normal locomotion. Biomedical sciences instrumentation. 1997;33:209-15. ##

25.          Churproong S, Khampirat B, Ratanajaipan P, Tattathongkom P. The effect of the arm swing on the heart rate of non-athletes. J Med Associ Thai. 2015;98:S79-86. ##

26.          de Kam D, Duysens J, Dietz V. Do we need allowing arm movements for rehabilitation of gait?  Converging clinical and engineering research on neurorehabilitation: Springer; 2013. p. 957-61. ##

27.          Stephenson JL, De Serres SJ, Lamontagne A. The effect of arm movements on the lower limb during gait after a stroke. Gait & posture. 2010;31(1):109-15. ##

28.          Sylos-Labini F, Ivanenko Y, MacLellan M, Cappellini G, Poppele R. Locomotor-Like Leg Movements Evoked by Rhythmic Arm Movements. 2014. ##

29.          Lo HS, Xie SQ. Exoskeleton robots for upper-limb rehabilitation: State of the art and future prospects. Medical engineering & physics. 2012;34(3):261-8. ##

30.          Gopura R, Bandara D, Kiguchi K, Mann GK. Developments in hardware systems of active upper-limb exoskeleton robots: A review. Robotics and Autonomous Systems. 2016;75:203-20. ##

31.          Long JT, Groner JB, Eastwood DC, Dillingham TR, Grover P, Harris GF. Implications of Arm Restraint on Lower Extremity Kinetics During Gait. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine. 2011;3(5):200-6. ##

32.          van Dieën JH, Kingma I, Van der Bug J. Evidence for a role of antagonistic cocontraction in controlling trunk stiffness during lifting. Journal of biomechanics. 2003;36(12):1829-36. ##

33.          Perry J, Davids JR. Gait analysis: normal and pathological function. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1992;12(6):815. ##

34.          Hinrichs RN. Whole body movement: coordination of arms and legs in walking and running.  Multiple muscle systems: Springer; 1990. p. 694-705. ##

35.          Bahamonde RE, Lim YT, Fluharty S. Kinematical Comparisons of Two Different Types of Arm Swing Motion During Fitness Walking. 한국체육학회지. 2000;39(3):674-86. ##

36.          Kim DY, Park CI, Park ES, Han SB. Role of Arm Swing on Gait. Journal of the Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2001;25(6):1031-40. ##

37.          Hong M, Earhart G, Damiano D, Perlmutter J. Decreased Arm Swing At Fast Walking Speed In Mild Parkinson Disease (pd). Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy. 2005;29(4):209-10. ##

38.          Ford MP, Wagenaar RC, Newell KM. The effects of auditory rhythms and instruction on walking patterns in individuals post stroke. Gait & posture. 2007;26(1):150-5. ##

39.          Kim D-J, Prabhakaran B, editors. Analysis of human motions with arm constraint. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE; 2011: IEEE. ##

40.          Fayez ES, El-Wishy AA. Impact of Arm Sling on Gait Pattern in Patients with Stroke: A randomized Cross-over Study. Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy. 2011;16(1). ##

41.          Dedieu P, Zanone P-G. Effects of gait pattern and arm swing on intergirdle coordination. Human movement science. 2012;31(3):660-71. ##

42.          Carmo A, Kleiner A, Costa P, Barros R. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of upper and lower limb motion during gait of post-stroke patients. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2012;45(6):537-45. ##

43.          Cheng KB, Huang Y-C, Kuo S-Y. Effect of arm swing on single-step balance recovery. Human movement science. 2014;38:173-84. ##

44.          Yang HS, Atkins LT, Jensen DB, James CR. Effects of constrained arm swing on vertical center of mass displacement during walking. Gait & posture. 2015;42(4):430-4. ##

45.          Punt M, Bruijn SM, Wittink H, van Dieën JH. Effect of arm swing strategy on local dynamic stability of human gait. Gait & posture. 2015;41(2):504-9. ##

46.          Dreyfuss D, Elbaz A, Mor A, Segal G, Calif E. The effect of upper limb casting on gait pattern. International journal of rehabilitation research. 2016;39(2):176-80. ##

47.          Yoon J, Park J, Park K, Jo G, Kim H, Jang W, et al. The effects of additional arm weights on arm-swing magnitude and gait patterns in Parkinson’s disease. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2016;127(1):693-7. ##

48.          Erdogan AT, Dal U, Marasligil B, Beydagi H. Effect of upper extremity swing restrain on walking energy consumption and balance/Ust ekstremite salinimi kisitlanmasinin yurume enerji tuketimine ve dengeye etkisi. Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2016;62(4):329-37. ##

49.          Koo H-M, Lee S-Y. Gait analysis on the condition of arm swing in healthy young adults. Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science. 2016;5(3):149-54. ##

50.          Johansson GM, Frykberg GE, Grip H, Broström EW, Häger CK. Assessment of arm movements during gait in stroke–The Arm Posture Score. Gait & posture. 2014;40(4):549-55. ##

51.          Umberger BR, Shapiro R. Effects of arm swing on energetic and kinetic descriptors of human gait. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2006;38(5):S258-S9. ##

52.          Bruijn SM, Meijer OG, Beek PJ, van Dieën JH. The effects of arm swing on human gait stability. Journal of experimental biology. 2010;213(23):3945-52. ##

53.          Baird JL. The role of the upper body in human locomotion. 2012. ##

54.          Angelini L, Di Puccio F, Zander T, Schmidt H. Influence of arm motion on spatio-temporal gait parameters and on force data. IOSR J Sports Phys Edu. 2016;3:12-6. ##

55.          Angelini L, Damm P, Zander T, Arshad R, Di Puccio F, Schmidt H. Effect of arm swinging on lumbar spine and hip joint forces. Journal of biomechanics. 2018;70:185-95. ##